UPSC Prelims Syllabus

UPSC Pre Syllabus

UPSC Prelims is the first stage of the UPSC civil services exam. UPSC aspirants refer to it as UPSC Prelims,  IAS prelims, or UPSC pre-exam. If you want to prepare for UPSC IAS exam it is recommended that you have to go through UPSC SYLLABUS ( UPSC Pre Syllabus and UPSC Mains Syllabus). It is said that everything under the sun can be asked in UPSC exam but if you read UPSC syllabus then it becomes easy for you to eliminate unnecessary topics.

UPSC Pre syllabus plays an important role in IAS Preparation but UPSC does not clearly define UPSC Pre Syllabus but don’t worry we did it for you. In this post we provide a topic-wise syllabus means we provide decoded syllabus of UPSC. You can also download UPSC Pre syllabus pdf

UPSC Prelims Syllabus

upsc pre syllabus
UPSC Prelims Syllabus

UPSC Pre General Studies Paper – I Syllabus

  • Current events of national and international importance.
  • History of India and Indian National Movement.
  • Indian and World Geography-Physical, Social, Economic Geography of India and the World.
  • Indian Polity and Governance – Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.
  • Economic and Social Development – Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector initiatives, etc.
  • General issues on Environmental Ecology, Biodiversity and Climate Change – that do not require subject specialization
  • General Science

UPSC CSAT Syllabus/ UPSC General Studies Paper-II Syllabus

  • Comprehension
  • Interpersonal skills including communication skills
  • Logical reasoning and analytical ability
  • Decision-making and problem solving
  • General mental ability
  • Basic numeracy (numbers and their relations, orders of magnitude, etc.) – Class X level)
  • Data interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data sufficiency, etc. – Class X level)

UPSC Pre syllabus in Topic/ Detail

Ancient History Syllabus for UPSC Prelims

1. Pre Historic Times

  • Periodization of Indian Pre History
  • Sources of Pre History
  • Stone Age:- Palaeolithic Or Old Stone, Mesolithic Or Middle Stone Age, Neolithic Age Or New Stone Age, Chalcolithic Age
  • Major Chalcolithic Cultures
  • Early Iron Age
  • Geographical Distribution and Characteristics

2. Indus Valley Civilization

  • IVC Geography and Archaeological Findings
    • Major cities
    • Town Planning
  • IVC Society and Culture
    • Script and Language
    • Crafts
    • Religions
    • Seals and Images
  • IVC Economy
    • Harappan Trade
    • Agriculture
    • Domestication of animals
    • Weights and Measures
  • Decline of Harappan Culture

3. Rig Vedic Period

  • Sources for Reconstructing Vedic Society and Culture
  • Geography of the Rig Vedic Period – Area of Settlement
  • Political Organisation and Evolution of Monarchy
  • Social Organization
  • Economy
  • Religious Practices and Culture

4. Later Vedic Period

  • Geography of the later Vedic Phases – Area of Settlement
  • Political System
  • Social Organisation and Varna System
  • Economy
  • Religious Practices and Culture

5. Jainism

  • Birth and Life of Mahavira (540- 468 B.C.)
  • Teachings of Mahavira
  • Organisation and Sects of Jainism
  • Literature of Jainism
  • Councils, Spread and Royal Patrons

6. Buddhism

  • Birth and Life of Buddha (563-483 BC)
  • Teachings of Buddha (Buddhism)
  • Organisation and Sects of Buddhism
  • Literature of Buddhism
  • Councils, Spread of and Royal Patronage
  • Causes for the Decline

7. Mahajanapadas Period

  • Republics and Monarchies
  • 16 Mahajanapadas
  • Magadha
  • Major Dynasties
    • Haryanka dynasty
    • Shishunaga Dynasty
    • Nanda Dynasty
  • Persian Invasions
  • Alexander’s Invasion
  • Society and Rise of urban centres
  • Economy
  • System of Administration

8. Mauryan Empire

  • Sources: Inscriptions and Sites and 
    Literary Sources (The Arthasastra)
  • Rulers and Political History of the Mauryas
    • Chandragupta and Bindusara
    • Megasthenes
    • Asoka and His Successors
  • Asoka’s Inscriptions and Sites
  • Asokan Reign
  • Asoka and Buddhism
  • Asoka Policy of Dhamma
  • Mauryan Administration
  • Foreign Relations
  • Decline of the Mauryas

9. Post Mauryan India

  • Society: Evolution of Jatis
  • Satavahanas
  • Sungas and Kanvas
  • Sakas
  • Kushanas
  • Kanishka

10. Gupta Period

  • Sources of Gupta Rule
  • Rulers and Political history of Guptas Chronology
  • Foreign Travellers Visit – Fahien’s Visit
  • Gupta Administration
  • Other Important Dynasties
  • Society Religion and Culture
  • Urban centres in Gupta period
  • Economy
  • Science and Technology
  • Literature
  • Later Guptas
  • Other Important Dynasties

11. Harshavardhana Period

  • Harsha Military Conquests
  • Harsha and Buddhism
  • Administration
  • Society and Culture
  • Economy

12. Sangam Period (South Indian Dynasties)

  • Sangam Literature
  • South Indian Dynasties
    • Cholas
    • Cheras
    • Pandyas
  • Sangam Polity, Society and Culture
  • Economy of Sangam Period
  • Foreign Dynasties                                   
  • Commercial Contacts with the Outside World
  • Schools of Art

Medieval History Syllabus for UPSC Prelims

1. Major Dynasties (750-1200) of Early Medieval India

  • The Pratiharas (8th to 10th Century)
  • The Palas (8th to 11th Century)
  • The Tripartite Conflict
  • The Senas (11th to 12th Century)
  • The Rajaputas
  • Pallavas
  • Chalukyas
  • Rashtrakutas
  • Indian Feudalism
  • Administration
  • Society and Culture
  • Economy and the decline of Trade

2. Cholas and Other South Indian Kingdoms

  • Chola Rulers and Political History
  • Chola Administration
  • Socio-Economic Life
  • Education and Literature
  • The Cheras (9th to 12th Century)
  • The Yadavas (12th to 13th Century)
  • Contact with South-East Asia

3. Early Muslim Invasions

  • The Arab Conquest of Sindh
  • Mahmud of Ghazni
  • Muhammad Ghori

4. The Delhi Sultanate (1206-1526 AD)

  • Slave Dynasty
  • Khalji Dynasty (1290-1320 AD)
  • Tughlaq Dynasty (1320-1414 AD)
  • Provincial Kingdoms and Resistance 
    by Indian Chiefs
  • Sayyid Dynasty
  • Lodi Dynasty
  • Attacks by Mongolas and other Turks
  • Administration
  • Economy
  • Urbanization
  • Society and Culture
  • Scientific Knowledge and legal System
  • Challenges leading to the decline of the Sultanate

5. Struggle for Empire in North India (Afghans, Rajputs and Mughals)

  • Struggle between Ibrahim Lodi and Babur
  • The Battle of Panipat
  • Babur’s problems after the Battle of Panipat
  • Struggle with RanaSanga
  • Problems of the Eastern Areas and the Afghans
  • Babur’s Contribution and Significance of his Advent into India
  • Humayun and the Afghans
  • Early Activities of Humayun, and the Tussle with Bahadur Shah
  • The Gujarat Campaign
  • The Bengal Campaign, and Struggle with Sher Khan

6. The Establishment of the North Indian Empire

  • Social and Political Background of Bihar  and the Rise of Sher Shah to Power
  • The Sur Empire (1540-56)
  • Contributions of Sher Shah
  • Coinage
  • Architecture

7. Consolidation and Expansion of the Empire – Akbar

  • Conflict with the Afghans – Hemu
    • 2nd Battle of Panipat
  • Struggle with the Nobility: Bairam Khan’s Regency; Revolt of Uzbek Nobles
  • Early Expansion of the Empire (1560-76) – Malwa, Garh-Katanga, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Eastern India
  • Relations with the Rajputs – Growth of a Composite Ruling Class
  • Rebellions, and Further Expansion of the Empire in the North West

8. State and Government under Akbar

  • Akbar’s Concept of Suzerainty
  • Structure of Government, Central and 
    Provincial -the Vikalat, the Central Ministries, Provincial
  • Government, District and Local Government
  • The Working of Government – the Ruler, Land-Revenue System, the Dahsala System, the Mansabdari System and the Army

9. Akbar’s Religious Views

  • Relations with the Ulama and Social Reforms
  • The Early Phase (1556-73)
  • The Second Phase (1573-80) – the Ibadat Khana
  • Debates – the Mahzar – Breach with Orthodox
  • Ulama – Re-organisation of Madadd-i-Maash Grants
  • Third or Final Phase – Din-i-Ilahi – State
  • Policies and religious toleration

10. The Deccan and the Mughals (Up to 1657)

  • The Deccani States up to 1595
  • Mughal Advance towards the Deccan
  • Mughal Conquest of Berar, Khandesh and Parts of Ahmadnagar
  • Rise of Malik Ambar Mughal Attempt at Consolidation (1601-27)
  • Extinction of Ahmadnagar,Acceptance of Mughal
  • Suzerainty by Bijapur and Golconda
  • Shah Jahan and the Deccan (1636-57)
  • Cultural Contribution of the Deccani States

11. Foreign Policy of the Mughals

  • Akbar and the Uzbeks
  • The Question of Qandahar and Relations with Iran
  • Shah Jahan’s Balkh Campaign
  • Mughal – Persian Relations – the Last Phase

12. India in the First Half of the Seventeenth Century

  • Jahangir’s Accession – his Early Difficulties
  • Territorial Consolidation and Expansion of the Empire – Mewar, East India and Kangra
  • NurJahan, and the NurJahan ‘Junta’ The Rebellions of Shah Jahan, 
    and the coup de main of Mahabat Khan
  • Jahangir as a Ruler
  • State and Religion in the First Half of the Seventeenth Century
  • Shah Jahan – Consolidation and Expansion of the Empire
  • Evolution of the Mughal Ruling Class and the Mansabdari System

13. Climax and Crisis of the Mughal Empire: The Marathas and the Deccan

  • Rise of the Marathas – Early Career of Shivaji
  • Treaty of Purandar – the Agra Visit
  • Aurangzeb and the Deccani States (1658-87)
  • Marathas and the Decean (1687-1707)
  • Assessment of Aurangzeb and the Jagirdari Crisis

14. The Maratha and Other Indian States and Society in The 18th Century

  • The Marathas and their Policy of Expansion
  • The Marathas and Nizam-ul-Mulk
  • The Maratha Advance into Gujarat and Malwa
  • The Maratha Advance into Doab and Punjab:
  • First Phase (1741-52); Second Phase (1752-61);
  • Third Battle of Panipat
  • Shivaji (1627-1680)
  • Shivaji’s administration
  • Successors of Shivaji
  • The Peshwas (1713-1818)
  • Other Indian States ( The Bhonsles The Gaikwads Holkars Sindhias)
  • Economic Condition in 18th Century
  • Social and Cultural Life

15. Vijayanagar Empire

  • Sources
  • Political History
  • Administration
  • Social and Cultural Life
  • Economic Condition
  • Conflicts with the Bahmani Kingdom

16. The Regional States in the Medieval Period

  • Regional States of North and South India (Bahmani, Bengal, Avadh, The Sikhs, Rajput States Jats Hyderabad Mysore)
  • Social and Cultural Conditions
  • Economic Conditions
  • Military Conditions

17. Northern India in the First Half of the Eighteenth Century

  • Bahadur Shah I, and the Beginning of the Struggle For Wizarat
  • Rajput Affairs
  • Marathas and the Deccan – Accentuation of the Party Struggle
  • Struggle for ‘New’ Wizarat: Zulfiqar Khan and Jahandar Shah (1712-13)
  • The Saiyid Brothers’ Struggle for ‘New’ Wizarat
  • The Saiyid ‘New’ Wizarat
  • The Wizarat of M. Amin Khan and Nizam-ul-Mulk
  • Rise of Regional States, Beginning of Foreign Invasions of India (1725-48)

18. Society-Structure and Growth

  • Rural Society
  • Towns and Town Life
  • Artisans and Master-Craftsmen
  • Women
  • Servants and Slaves
  • Standard of Living
  • The Ruling Classes – Nobility, Rural Gentry
  • The Middle Strata
  • The Commercial Classes

19. Economic Life-Patterns and Prospects

  • Inland Trade
  • Overseas Trade – Role of Foreign Trading
  • Companies – Position of Indian Merchants Over-land Trade
  • The Mughal State and Commerce
  • Trend of India’s Economy and Prospects during the First Half of the Eighteenth Century

Modern History syllabus for upsc prelims

1. The Advent of Europeans In India

  • The Portuguese in India
  • De Almeida
  • Albuquerque
  • Causes of failure of Portuguese empire in India
  • The Dutch in India
  • The Danes in India
  • The English
  • The French
  • Anglo-French Rivalry
  • First Carnatic War
  • Rise of the Hyderahad State
  • The Second Carnatic War
  • The Third Carnatic War
  • Causes of English Succes

2. British Expansion in India

  • Bengal
  • Anglo Maratha Wars
  • The Subsidiary Alliance System
  • Second Phase of British Expansion In India                                 
  • The Conquest of Sindh
  • Anglo-Sikh Wars
  • Doctrine of Lapse
  • Annexation of Oudh

3. Administration Before 1857

  • The Dual System
  • The Charter Acts
  • Judicial System
  • Impact of British Administration

4.Economic policies of The British

  • Phase of Mercantilism (1757-1813)
  • Phase of Free Trade (1813-1858)
  • Phase of Finance Imperialism (1858 onwards)
  • Land Revenue Policy                             
    • Ryotwari                                   
    • Mahalwari
    • Permanent Settlement
  • Impact of British Policy on Indian Economy
  • Drain of Wealth Theory

5. Impact of British Administration

  • Industrialization—Ruin of Artisans and Handicrafts men
  • Impoverishment of Peasantry
  • Emergence of New Land Relations, Ruin of Old Zamindars
  • Stagnation and Deterioration of Agriculture
  • Commercialization of Indian Agriculture
  • Development of Modern Industry
  • Rise of Indian Bourgeoisie
  • Economic Drain
  • Famine and Poverty
  • Nationalist Critique of Colonial Economy
  • Abolition of the Dual System

6. Revolt of 1857

  • Causes of the Revolt
    • Economic Causes
    • Political Causes
    • Administrative Causes
    • Socio -Religious Causes
    • Influence of Outside Events
    • Discontent Among Sepoy’s
  • Centres and Spread of the Revolt
  • Leaders of the Revolt
  • Causes of Failure of the Revolt
  • Nature and Impact of the Revolt
  • Consequences

7. Administrative Changes After 1857

  • Administration – Central, Provincial, Local
  • Changes in the Army
  • Public Services
  • Princely States
  • Foreign Policy

8. Development of Civil Services

  • Indian Civili Services Act, 1861
  • Aitcision Comminittee on Public Services (1886)
  • Montford Reforms (1919)
  • Lee Commission (1924)
  • Government of India Act, 1935

9. Development of Education

  • Charter Act of 1813
  • Orientalist-Anglicism Controversy
  • Efforts of Thomson
  • Wood’s Dispatch (1854) Hunter Education Commission (1882-83)
  • Indian Universities Act, 1904
  • Government Resolution on Education Policy—1913
  • Saddler University Commission (1917-19)
  • Education Under Dyarchy
  • Hartog Committee (1929)
  • Wardha Scheme of Basic Education (1937)
  • Sergeant Plan of Education
  • Kothari Education Commission (1964-66)
  • Development of Vernacular Education
  • Development of Technical Education
  • Evaluation of British Policy on Education

10. Development of Press

  • Different Publications and Journals
  • Acts related to Press
    • Vernacular Press Act, 1878
  • Struggle by Early Nationalists to 
    Secure Press Freedom ,
  • During and After the First World War
  • During the Second World War
  • After Independence

11. Socio-Religious Reforms

  • Factors causing Reforms
  • Directions of refroms
  • Hindu Reform Movements
  • Reform Movements Among Muslims
  • Sikh Reform Movement
  • Parsi Reform Movement
    • Parsi Religious Reform Association               
  • Significance of Reform Movements
  • Impact of Reform Movements

12. PERSONALITIES

  • Raja Ram Mohan Roy
  • Swami Vivekananda
  • Swami DayanandaSaraswati
  • Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
  • Keshab Chandra Sen
  • Sri Ramakrishna Paramhamsa
  • Mahadev Govind Ranade
  • Annie Besant–Theosophical Society  
  • Syed Ahmad Khan
  • Baba Dayal Das                                     
  • Pandita Ramabai Sarojini Naidu
  • Jyotiba Phule
  • Dr.Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar

13. PEASANT, TRIBAL AND OTHER MOVEMENTS

  • Tribal Movements
    • Bhil Uprising
    • Kol Uprising
    • Santhal Rebellion
    • Jaintia and Garo Rebellion
    • Rampa Rebellion
    • Munda Rebellion
    • Khonda Dora Uprisings
    • Tana Bhagat Movement
  • Peasant Movements
    • Champaran Satyagraha
    • Kheda Peasant Struggle
    • Bardoli Movement
    • Moplah Rebellion
    • Tebhaga Movement
    • Telangana Movement

14. REVOLUTIONARY NATIONALISM

  • Early Phase Indian National Congress
  • The Moderate Congress (1885-1905)
  • Opinion Against Economic Exploitation Administrative Reforms Constitutional Reforms : Weaknesses & Evaluation
  • The Extremist (1905-1920)
    • Terrorist Movements
    • The Revolutionary Movement
    • Reasons for Failure
    • Revolutionary Activities in Maharashtra
    • Revolutionary Activities in Bengal
    • Revival of Revolutionary Nationalism
    • Surya Sen
    • Revolutionary Activities Outside India
    • The Indian Independence Committee in Berlin
  • Differences between the Moderates and the Extremists

15. INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT – I (1905-1918)

  • Partition of Bengal (1905)
  • Swadeshi Movement
  • Muslim League, 1906
  • Surat Session of INC, 1907
  • Indian Council Act (Morley-Minto Act) 1909
  • Ghadar Party, 1913
  • Komagata Maru Incident 1914
  • The Lucknow Pact (1916)
  • Home Rule Movement (1915–1916)
  • August Declaration, 1917

16. INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT –II (1918-1929)

  • World War I-Reforms and Agitation
  • Champaran Satyagraha (1917)
  • Ahmadabad Mill Strike (1918)
  • Kheda Satyagraha (1918)
  • The Government of India Act, 1919
  • Rowlatt Act and Jallianwala Bagh 
    Massacre (1919)
  • Khilafat Movement
  • The Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-22)
  • Bardoli Resolution
  • Nagpur Session of Congress
  • Swaraj Party and its Evaluation
  • Muddiman Committee (1924)
  • Simon Commission (1927)
  • Bardoli Satyagraha (1928)
  • Nehru Report (1928)
  • Jinnah’s Fourteen Points
  • Lahore Session, 1929
  • Allahabad Address (1930)

17. INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT – III (1930-1947)

  • Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-1931)
  • First Round Table Conference, 1930
  • Gandhi-Irwin Pact, 1931
  • Karachi session of 1931
  • Second Round Table Conference, 1931
  • Civil Disobedience Movement (Second-Phase)
  • Third Round Table Conference (17 November 1932)
  • Communal Award
  • Poona Pact, 1932
  • Government of India Act, 1935
  • World War II and Indian Nationalism
  • Resignation of Congress Ministers (1939)
  • Poona Resolution and Conditional Support to Britain (1941)
  • August Offer of 1940
  • The Individual Civil Disobedience
  • Two-Nation Theory
  • Demand for Pakistan (1942)
  • Cripps Mission (1942)
  • Quit India Movement
  • Azad Hind Fauj
  • Indian National Army
  • N.A. Trials
  • I.N. Rebellion
  • Rajagopalachari Formula, 1945
  • Desai – Liaqat Pact
  • Cabinet Mission (1946)
  • Wavell Plan
  • Jinnah’s Direct Action Resolution
  • Mountbatten Plan of June 1947
  • Indian Independence Act 1947

18. GOVERNOR GENERALS DURING BRITISH INDIA

  • Governor of Bengal (Before 1773)
  • Governor Generals of Bengal (1773-1833)
  • Governor Generals of India (1832-1858)
  • Viceroy and Governor Generals of India (1858-1947)

LIST

  • Robert Clive (1754-1767)
  • Lord Warren Hastings (1773-1785)
  • Lord Cornwallis (1786-1793)
  • Sir John Shore (1793-1798)
  • Lord Arthur Wellesley (1798-1805)
  • Lord George Barlow (1805-1807)
  • Lord Minto-I (1807-1813)
  • Francis Rawdon Hastings (1813-1823): (Marques of Hastings)       
  • Lord Amherst (1823-28)
  • Lord William Bentinck (1828-1835)
  • Sir Charles Metcalfe (1835-1836)
  • Lord Auckland (1836-1842)
  • Lord Ellenborough (1842-1844)
  • Lord Hardinge-I (1844-1848)
  • Lord Dalhousie (1848-1856 great imperialist and colonist)
  • Lord Canning (1856-1857 and 1858-1862)
  • Lord Elgin-I (1862-1863)
  • Lord Lawrence (1864-1869)
  • Lord Mayo (1869-1872)
  • Lord Northbrook (1872-1876)
  • Lord Lytton (1876-1880)
  • Lord Rippon (1880-1884)
  • Lord Dufferin (1884-1888)
  • Lord Lansdowne (1888-1894)
  • Lord Elgin-II (1894-1999)
  • Lord Curzon (1899-1905)
  • Lord Minto-II (1905-1910)
  • Lord Hardinge-II (1910-1916)
  • Lord Chelmsford (1916-1921)
  • Lord Reading (1921-1926)
  • Lord Irwin (1926-1931)
  • Lord Willingdon (1931-1936)
  • Lord Linlithgow (1936-1944)
  • Lord Wavell (1944-1947)
  • Lord Mountbatten (1947-1948)

19. CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA

  • Regulating Act 1773
  • Pitts India Act of 1784
  • Charter Act of 1793
  • Charter Act of 1813
  • Charter Act of 1833
  • Charter Act of 1853
  • Government of India Act 1858
  • The Indian Councils Act 1861
  • Indian Councils Act 1892
  • Indian Councils Act 1909 or Morley – Minto Reforms Government of India Act 1919 or Montague – Chelmsford Reforms
  • Government of India Act 1935
  • Indian Independence Act, 1947

Art and Culture Syllabus for UPSC Prelims

UPSC Syllabus- Visual Arts

1. Architecture

  • Harappan Period
  • Mauryan Architecture
  • Post-Mauryan Period
  • Gupta Period
  • Temples of Khajuraho
  • Temples of Odisha
  • Temples of Gwalior
  • Temples of Gujarat
  • Temples of Rajasthan
  • Temples of Bengal
  • Temples of Assam
  • Temples of Himachal Pradesh
  • Temples of Jammu and Kashmir
  • Pallava Period Temples
  • Chola Period Temples
  • Pandya Temples
  • Vijaynagar Period Temples
  • NayakaTemples
  • Temples of Kerala
  • Rashtrakuta Period Temples
  • Schools of Temple Architecture
    • Nagara Style
    • Vesara Style
    • Hoysala Style
    • Dravidian Style
  • Indo-Islamic Architecture
    • Imperial Style (Delhi Sultanate)
    • Provincial Style
    • Mughal Style
    • Sikh Style of Architecture
    • Avadh (Oudh) Style
    • Rajput Architecture
    • Jaina Art
  • Modern Architecture
    • European Influence
      • Portuguese
      • Danish
      • British
    • Indo-Saracenic Architecture
    • Post-Independence Period

2. Sculptures

  • Sculptures of Harappan Civilisation
  • Sculptures of Mauryan Age
  • Post-Mauryan Period
  • Jain Sculptures
  • Buddhist Sculpture
  • Gupta Sculpture
  • Medieval School of Sculpture
  • Modern Indian Sculpture

3. Paintings

  • Cave Paintings
  • Tradition of Mural Paintings in India
  • Tradition of Miniature Paintings in India
  • Paintings in the Deccan
  • Rajput School of Painting
  • Pahari School of Painting
  • Miniature Painting in South India
  • Regional Paintings
  • Modern Paintings
  • Contemporary Paintings

4. Pottery Tradition

  • Ochre: Coloured Pottery(OCP)
  • Black and Red Ware (BRW)
  • Painted Grey Ware (PGW)
  • Northern Black Polished Ware (NBPW)
  • Glazed and Unglazed Pottery

5. Numismatics

  • coinage

UPSC Prelims syllabus- Performing Arts

1. Music in India

  • Classical Indian Music
    • Hindustani Music
      • Gharanas
    • Carnatic Music
  • Main Pillars of Indian Music
  • Forms of Indian Music
  • Musical Instruments
  • Institutions Related to Music in India
  • Folk Music

2. Dance in India

  • Concept of Dance in India
  • Concept of Ashta Nayika
  • Rasa and Bhava
  • Eight Classical Dance Forms in India
  • Folk Dances
  • Modern Dances

3. Sports in India

  • Various Type of Sports
  • Genesis of Martial Arts
  • Forms of Traditional Martial Arts
  • Animal Sports

4. Indian Theatre

  • History of Theatre in India
  • Classical Sanskrit Theatre
  • Traditional Theatre
  • Regional Theatre
  • Modern Theatre in India
  • Renaissance of Indian Theatre
  • Cinema in India
    • History of Indian Cinema
    • Classification of Indian Cinema Film

5. Indian Puppetry

  • String Puppets
  • Shadow Puppets
  • Rod Puppets
  • Glove puppets
  • Modern Puppetry
  • Tribal Puppetry

UPSC Syllabus- Religion, Language and Literature

1. Religion in India

  • Pre-Vedic Religion
  • Hinduism
  • Buddhism
  • Jainism
  • Sikhism
  • Islam
  • Christianity
  • Zoroastrianism
  • Judaism
  • Philosophy in India
  • Bhakti Movement
  • Saints of Bhakti Movement
  • Sufism

2. Language and Literature in India

  • Classical Language
  • Sanskrit Literature
  • Pali Literature
  • Prakrit Literature
  • Tamil Literature
  • Telugu Literature
  • Malayalam Literature
  • Kannada Literature
  • Odia Literature
  • Assamese Literature
  • Bengali Literature
  • Gujarati Literature
  • Rajasthani Literature
  • Punjabi Literature
  • Marathi Literature
  • Hindi Literature
  • Persian Literature
  • Urdu Literature
  • Influence/Contribution of foreign languages & Literature to India language

Miscellaneous

  • Government Cultural Institutions in India
  • UNESCO’s List of Cultural Heritage in India
  • Protection and Promotion of Indian Culture and Heritage :Legal Provisions
  • Schemes and Awards
    • Awards and Honours Associated with Culture
    • International Yoga Day
    • Indian Handicrafts
  • Personalities Related to Culture
  • Places of Cultural Interest
  • The Calendar & the Eras                       
  • Science and Technology in Ancient India

Recent Development

  • Important Festivals
  • Kheer Bhawani festival
  • Mahapushkaram
  • Bathu kamma
  • Manipur Sangai Festival
  • Losar festival
  • Intangible Cultural Heritage under UNESCO has inscribed ´Kumbh Mela’
  • Sankalp Parva-Sankalp se Siddhi’
  • Paryatan Parv
  • Bharat Parv
  • Orange Festival Nagpur
  • Protest against Sunburn fest                 
  • 2017 Teesta Rangit Tourism Festival
  • Ganga sagarmela
  • Nabakalebar Rath Yatra
  • Chapchar Kut Festival
  • Hornbill Festival
  • Wangala Festival
  • Schemes for Cleanliness of Tourist Places
  • Swachh Bharat Swachh Smarak
  • ‘Swachh Bharat Swachh Paryatan’
  • Incredible India 2.0 Campaign
  • Schemes for Development of Cultural Heritage
  • Sanskriti App
  • Cultural Mapping of India
  • Schemes for Monument Development
  • HRIDAY
  • SWADESH DARSHAN
  • PRASAD SCHEME
  • AdarshSmarak Yojana
  • Cultural Scheme Monitoring System
  • Schemes for promotion of Culture
  • Schemes for Serious Literature and Litterateurs
  • National Mission on Monuments and Antiquities
  • National Mission on Manuscripts
  • Gandhi Heritage Sites Mission
  • Muziris Heritage Site
  • International Initiatives for Cultural Development and Recognition
  • Project Mausam
  • International Buddhist Conclave
  • World’s Heritage
  • UNESCO inscribes Yoga in the representative list of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity
  • UNESCO Creative Cities Network
  • UNESCO Global Geopark
  • National Virtual Library of India
  • Jallikattu
  • Kambala
  • GI Tag
    • Definition
    • GI vs. Trademark
    • Rights under GI
    • Famous Goods
    • Latest addition
  • Rashtriya Ekta Diwas

Geography Syllabus for UPSC Prelims

General Geography Syllabus for UPSC Prelims

1. Universe

  • Theories of development of Universe
  • Galaxy
  • Star formation
  • Planet formation
  • Solar system
  • Moon
  • Asteroid
  • Meteor
  • Kupier belt
  • Comets
  • Dwarf planets

2. Earth Evolution

  • Earth Evolution
    • Geological History of Earth
    • Evolution of the Earth Layered Structure
      • Evolution of Lithosphere
      • Evolution of Atmosphere
      • Evolution of Hydrosphere
    • Latitude and Longitude including important Parallels and Meridians
    • Motions of the Earth – Rotation, Revolution and their effects
    • Inclination of the Earth’s Axis and its effects
    • Time Zones, Local and Standard Time and the International Date Line, Calendar
    • Eclipses – Solar, Lunar
    • Earth’s magnetic field
    • Earth’s Geological time scale
    • ORIGIN of LIFE

UPSC Syllabus- Geomorphology

1. Earth’s Interior

  • Earth’s Interior
    • Interior of the Earth
      • Crust
      • Mantle
      • Core
    • Sources of Information
      • Direct
      • Indirect – Earth Quake Waves Volcanoes    
    • Theories – Suess Theory

2. Geology and Rock system

  • Minerals
  • Major Elements of the Earth’s Crust
    • Minerals – Feldspar, Quartz, Pyroxene Amphibole, Mica , Olivine
    • Physical Characteristics–Crystal Form, Cleavage Fracture, Lusture, Color, Streak
    • Transparency, Structure, Hardness, Specific Gravity
    • Metallic minerals – precious Ferrous, Non Ferrous
    • Non-metallic Minerals – Sulphur, Phosphates, Cement
  • Rocks (Aggregate of Minerals)
    • Petrology
    • Rocks & landforms
    • Rocks & Soils
    • 3 Family of Rocks
    • Igneous
    • Sedimentary
    • Metamorphic

3. Geomorphic Processes

  • Earth’s Surface
    • Exogenic Forces
    • Endogenic Forces
    • Gradation , Degradation & Agradation
  • Endogenic Forces
    • Diastrophism
    • Orogenic
    • Epierogenic
    • Earthquakes
    • Plate movements
    • Volcanism
  • Exogenic Forces
    • Denudation Processes
    • Weathering
    • Mass movements
    • Erosion Transportation & Deposition

4. Earthquakes and Volcanism

  • Earthquakes
    • Waves: P,S, Body, Surface,
    • Shadow Zone
    • Types of Earthquakes
    • Effects
    • Frequency
    • Locating an Epicentre
  • Volcanism
    • Types
      • Shield
      • Composite
      • Caldera
      • Flood Basalt
      • Mid Ocean Ridge
    • Landforms (intrusive)
      • Batholiths
      • Lacoliths
      • Lopoliths
      • Phacoliths
      • Sills
      • Dykes

5. Distribution of Continents & Oceans

  • Theories
  • Continental Drift Theory
    • Alfred Wegner
    • Pangea, Panthalasa
    • Laurasia, Gondwanaland
  • Evidence in support of Continental Drift Theory
    • Jigsaw Fit
    • Rocks of Same age across oceans
    • Tillite
    • Placer Deposits
    • Distribution of Fossils
  • Isostacy
  • Sea Floor Spreading
  • Forces of Drifting
    • Pole Fleeing Force
    • Tidal Force
  • Post Drift Studies
  • Convectional Current Theory
  • Mapping of the Ocean Floor
  • Plate Tectonics
    • Lithospheric Plates – Major Plate – Minor Plates
  • Plate Boundaries – Divergent – Convergent – Transform
  • Rates of Plate Movements
  • Force of plate movement
  • Indian Plate

6. Landforms and their evolution

  • Causes
    • Geomorphic Processes
    • Geomorphic Agents
  • Geomorphic Agent
    • Erosional or Destructional
    • Depositional or Constructional
  • Agents and their Impacts – Wind, Running Water, Ground Water, Glaciers, Waves & Currents
  • Winds
    • As agents in Hot deserts
    • Cause – Deflation Abrasion Impact
    • Erosional landforms
      • Pediments and Pediplains
      • Playas
      • Deflation Hollows and Caves
      • Mushroom , Table & Pedestal Rocks
  • Depositional Landforms
    • Barchans
    • Seif
    • Parabolic
    • Transverse
    • Longitudinal
  • Running Water
    • Erosional Landforms
      • Valleys
        • Rills
        • Gullies
        • Valleys – V Shape , Gorge (Hard Rocks), Canyon (Sedimentary)
      • Potholes & Plunge pools
      • Incised or entrenched meanders
      • River Terraces – paired & unpaired
    • Depositional Landforms
      • Alluvial Fans
      • Delta
      • Flood plains, Natural Levees, Point Bars
      • Meansders, Slip off bank, Under cut bank
      • Oxbow lake
      • Braided Channels
  • Ground Water (Karst Topography)
    • Permeable Rocks
      • Percolation
      • Bedding Plains
  • Limestone and Dolomite Regions
    • Balkans , Adjacent to Adriatic regions
  • Erosional Landforms
    • Pools – Swallow Hole, Valley Sinks (Uvalas), Sinkholes, Collapse sinks (Dolines), Lapies, Ridges, Limestone Pavements
    • Caves – Altering bed of Rocks (Shale sandstone quartzit, Caves and Tunnels
  • Depositional landforms
    • Stalactites
    • Stalagmites
    • Pillar Columns
  • Glaciers
    • Erosional Landforms
      • Cirque of Tarn Lakes
      • Hors and Serrated Regions – Arete
      • Glacial Valleys / Troughs – Fiords
    • Depositional Landforms
      • Glacial Tills
      • Moraines
      • Eskers
      • Outwash Planes
      • Drumlins
  • Waves and Currents
    • High Rocky Coasts & 
      Low Sedimentary Coasts
    • Erosional Landforms
      • Cliffs
      • Terraces
      • Caves
      • Stacks
    • Depositional Landforms
      • Beaches and Dunes
      • Bars, Barriers, Spits
  • Weathering
    • Factors
      • Geological
      • Climatic
      • Topograhic
      • Vegetative
    • Major Processes
      • Chemical
      • Physical or Mechanical
      • Biological
    • Chemical – Forces Chemical Action
      • Solution
      • Carbonation
      • Hydration
      • Oxidation & Reduction
    • Physical Forces Gravitational, Expansion, Water Pressure
      • Unloading & Expansion
      • Temperature changes and Expansion
      • Freezing, Thawing, & Frost Wedging
      • Salt Weathering
  • Biological Weathering
    • Burrowing
    • Wedging
    • Plant Roots
  • Effects of Weathering
    • Exfoliation (Flakin) – Exfoliation Domes
  • Significance of Weathering
    • Soil Formation
    • Biomes and Biodiversity
    • Leaching / Enrichment
  • Mass Movements
    • Activating causes
    • Forms of movement – Heave Flow Slide

7. Landforms across the world

  • Rivers and lakes (Factual)
  • Mountain and Peaks (Factual)
  • Plateaus (Factual)

Oceanography Syllabus for UPSC Prelims

1. Hydrosphere

  • Water on the Surface of the Earth
  • Hydrological Cycle
    • Component
    • Processes

2. Submarine Relief Features

  • Oceans
  • Relief of the Ocean floor
  • Divisions of the ocean floor
    • Continental Shelf
    • Continental Slope
    • Deep sea plain
    • Oceanic deep and Trenches

Minor relief features

  • Mid oceanic ridges
  • Seamount
  • Submarine canyons
  • Guyouts
  • Volcanic Islands
  • Fracture Zones
  • Hotspots
  • Coral Islands
  • Atoll

3. Temperature and Salinity

  • Temperature of the Ocean Water
    • Vertical
    • Spatial
    • Factors affecting Temperature distribution
      • Latitude
      • Unequal distribution of land & Water
      • Prevailing wind
      • Ocean Currents
      • Horizontal & Vertical Distribution
  • Salinity of the Ocean Water
    • Factors affecting salinityEvaporation and precipitation
    • Fresh water flow from rivers
    • Ocean currents
  • Horizontals distribution of salinity
  • Vertical Distribution of salinity
  • Density of Ocean Waters

4. Waves, Ocean Currents, Tides

  • Movements of ocean Water                
  • Factors influencing Movement
    • Temperature
    • Salinity
    • Density
  • Motion – Horizontal and Vertical Currents
  • Waves
    • Motion of waves and water molecules
    • Characteristics of wave
    • Crest and Trough
    • Height
    • Amplitude
    • Period
    • Length
    • Speed
    • Frequency
  • Tides
    • Relation between Gravitational Forces and Tides
    • Tidal currents
    • Types of Tides
      • Based on Frequency – Semi Diurnal, Diurnal, mixed
      • Based on SME position – spring and Neap Tides
    • Importance of Tides
  • Ocean Currents
    • Primary Force that initiates the movement
      • Heating of solar energy
      • Wind
      • Gravity
      • Coriolis force
    • Secondary force that influence the currents to flow
    • Types of ocean currents:
      • Surface currents & Deep water currents based on Depth
      • Cold and Warm Currents based on Temperature
    • Major Ocean currents of the World
    • Effects of Ocean Currents

5. Marine Resources

  • Underground water resource
  • Surface water resources
  • Inland water resources: Utilization of inland water resources
  • Oceanic Water Resources (Marine Resource)
  • Utilization of oceans by man
  • Water consumption patterns
  • Conservation of Water Resources
  • Techniques of Water Conservation

6. Ocean Deposits and Corals

  • Terrigenous Deposits
  • Volcanic Deposits
  • Biotic deposits
    • Neritic
    • Pelagic ( Calcereous , Siliceous )
  • Abiotic Deposits
  • Coral Reefs
  • Great Barrier Reef

UPSC Syllabus- Climatology

1. Atmosphere

  • Composition
  • Gases
  • Water Vapour
  • Dust Particles
  • Structure
  • Exosphere
  • Thermosphere
  • Mesosphere
  • Stratosphere
  • Troposphere
  • Altitude vs. Temperature

2. Inversion of Temperature

  • Inversion of Temperature
    • Temperature
    • Factors controlling Temp distribution
    • Distribution of Temp Month of January-July
    • Range of Temp Month of January-July
    • Inversion of Temperature

3. Insolation and Heat Budget

  • Solar Radiation Heat Balance Temperature Insolation
  • Aphelion and Perihelion
  • Variability of Insolation at the surface of the Earth
    • Day Season Year
    • Rotation on Axis, Angle of Inclination of sun rays, Length of the day
    • Transparency of Atmosphere, configuration of land in terms of its aspect.
  • Heat Balance
  • Heating and cooling of atmosphere
    • Conduction
    • Convection
    • Advection
  • Terrestrial Radiation
  • Heat Budget of the Planet Earth
  • Macro Budget
    • Albedo
    • Shortwave Radiation
    • Long wave Earth Radiation
  • Variation in the net Heat Budget at the Earth’s Surface

4. Winds and Pressure belts

  • Atmospheric Circulation and Weather Systems
  • Atmospheric Pressure
  • Vertical variation of pressure
  • Horizontal distribution of pressure
  • World Distribution of Sea Level Pressure
  • Factors affecting the velocity and direction of the Wind
  • Pressure Gradient Force
  • Frictional Force
  • Coriolis Force
  • Pressure and Wind (Cyclonic & Anticyclone Circulation)
  • General Circulation of the Atmosphere – Pattern of Planetary Winds
  • Latitudinal Variation of Atmospheric Heating
  • Emergence of Pressure Belts
  • Migration of Belts Following apparent Path of Sun
  • Distribution of continents & Oceans
  • Rotation of the Earth
  • Circulation
  • Simplified Global Circulation – Hadley Cell , Ferrel Cell
  • Seasonal Wind
  • Local Wind
  • Land and Sea Breezes
  • Mountain and Valley Winds

5. Air Mass, Fronts, Cyclones and Jet Stream

  • Air mass & fronts
  • Cyclones
  • Thunderstorms
  • Tornadoes
  • Monsoons
  • Fronts

6. Precipitation

  • Water in the Atmosphere
  • Water Vapour
  • Precipitation
  • Humidity – Absolute and Relative
  • Saturation – Dew Point
  • Evaporation and Condensation
  • Dew
  • Frost
  • Fog & Mist
  • Clouds
    • Types – Cirrus, Cumulus, Stratus, Nimbus
    • High – Cirrus, Cirrostratus, Cirrocumulus
    • Middle – Altostratus, Altocumulus
    • Low – Stratocumulus, Nimbostratus
  • Vertical Development – Cumulus and Cumulonimbus
  • Precipitation
  • Rainfall, Snowfall, Sleet Hail, Hailstones
  • Types of Rainfall
  • Conventional
  • Orographic
  • Cyclonic
  • World Distribution of Rainfall

7. Climatic Zones of the World

  • Koppene’s Classification Climatic Zones
  • World Climate
  • The Hot, Wet Equatorial Climate
  • The Tropical Monsoon and Tropical Marine Climates
  • The Savanna or Sudan Climate
  • The Hot Desert and Mid-Latitude Desert Climates
  • The Warm Temperate Western Margin (Mediterranean) Climate
  • The Temperate Continental (Steppe Climate)
  • The Warm Temperate Eastern Margin  (China Type Climate)
  • The Cool Temperate Western Margin (British Type Climate)
  • The Cool Temperate Continental (Siberian) Climate
  • The Cool Temperate Eastern Margin (Lauren-tian) Climate
  • The Arctic or Polar Climate

Bio-Geography Syllabus for UPSC Prelims

1. Soil Characteristics

  • Soil Characteristics
  • Factors Responsible for Soil Formation
  • Stages of Soil Formation
  • Soil Forming Processes
  • Soil Profiles and Horizons
  • Soil Classification
  • Soil Erosion and Conservation

2. Vegetation resources

  • Types of natural vegetation
  • Forests
  • Significance of forests
  • Economic significance, Ecological significance
  • Cultural significance
  • Factors of forest development
  • Extent of forest cover
  • Classification of forests
  • Grasslands
  • Desert vegetation
  • Tundra Vegetation
  • Economic utilization of forests
  • Deforestation
  • Deforestation in tropical forests
  • Deforestation in temperate forests
  • Rate and extent of deforestation
  • Causes and factors of deforestation: Immediate causes of deforestation
  • Indirect deforestation
  • Underlying causes of deforestation
  • Conservation of forests
  • Forest conservation strategies
  • Reforestation
  • Monoculture plantation
  • Afforestation
  • Types of forestry
  • Social forestry
  • Agro-forestry

UPSC Syllabus- Human and Economic Geography of the World

1. Demography and Census

  • Concept of human resources
  • Factors affecting the distribution of Population
    • Geographical Factors
      • Availability of water
      • Landforms
      • Climate
      • Soils
    • Economic Factors
      • Minerals
      • Urbanisation
      • Industrialisation
      • Socio-cultural factors
  • Population Growth
    • Growth of Population
    • Growth Rate of Population
    • Natural growth of Population
    • Positive Growth of Population
    • Negative Growth of Population
  • Components of Population change
    • Crude Birth Rate
    • Crude Death Rate
    • Migration – Place of Origin and Place of Destination
    • Immigration
    • Emigration
    • Push Factors and Pull Factors
  • Trends in Population Growth
  • Doubling time of world population
  • Spatial pattern of Population change
  • Impact of Population Change
  • Demographic Transition
    • Demographic Transition Theory
    • Demographic Cycle
  • Theories of population growth
    • Malthusian theory
    • Marxian theory
    • Demographic Transition Theory
    • Optimum population
    • Over-population
    • Under-population
  • Population Control Measures
  • World population distribution, Density and Growth
    • Continent-wide distribution of population
    • Pattern of population density globally
    • Population increase in the world
  • Population Composition
    • Sex composition
      • Sex Ratio
      • Natural Advantage vs Social Advantage
    • Age Structure
      • Age – sex Pyramid
      • Expanding Populations
      • Constant Population
      • Declining Popoulation
    • Literacy – literacy Rate
    • Rural Urban Composition
    • Occupational Structure
    • Religion based Composition
  • Population problems
    • Population problems of developing countries
    • Population problems of developed countries
    • Population Policies: of China, of India
  • Census 2011
    • Census Terminologies
    • Census of India important information

2. Human Development

  • Growth vs Development
  • The four pillars of Development
    • Equity
    • Sustainability
    • Productivity
    • Empowerment
  • Approaches to Human Development
  • Measuring Human Development
    • Income Approach
    • Welfare Approach
    • Basic Needs Approach
    • Capability Approach
  • Internation Comparisions of Human Development

3. Economic Activities

  • Primary Activities
    • Hunting and Gathering Pastoralism
    • Nomadic Herding
    • Commercial livestock Rearing
    • Agriculture
      • Subsistence Agriculture
      • Primitive Subsistence Agriculture
      • Intensive Subsistence Agriculture
      • Planation Agriculture
      • Extensive Commercial Grain Cultivation
      • Mixed Farming
      • Dairy Farming
      • Mediterranean Agriculture
      • Viticulture
      • Market Gardening and Horticulture – Truck Farming
      • Cooperative Farming
      • Collective Farming
    • Mining
      • Factors affecting Mining
      • Methods of Mining – Open Cast and underground mining
  • Secondary Activities
    • Manufacturing
    • Characteristics of Modern large scale Manufacturing
    • Specialisation of Skills/ methods of Production, Mechanisation  – Technological Innovation 
    • Access to market, Access to labour Supply, Access to Sources of Energy, Access to Transportaion and communication Facilities
    • Government Policy
  • Classification of Manufacturing Industries
    • Industries based on size
      • Small Scale manufacturing
      • Large Scale manufacturing
    • Industries based on Inputs/Raw Materials
      • Agro Based industries
      • Mineral Based Industries
      • Chemical based Industries
      • Forest based Raw material using industries
      • Animal Based industries
    • Industries based on Output/Product
    • Industries based on ownership
  • Tertiary, Quaternary and Quinary Activities                
    • Types of Tertiary Activities
      • Retail trading
      • Trade and commerce
      • Wholesale Trading
      • Transport
      • Communication
      • Services
    • People engaged in tertiary Activities
      • Tourism
      • Medical Services
      • Quaternary Activities
      • Quinary Activities
    • Concept of Digital Divide

4. Transport and Communication

  • Transport
    • Modes of Transportation
    • Land Transport
    • Roads
    • Railways
    • Water Transport
    • Sea Routes
    • Inland Waterways
    • Air Transport
    • Pipelines
  • Communications
    • Satellite communication
    • Cyber space internet

5. International Trade

  • History of international Trade
  • Basis of International Trade
    • Difference in national resources
    • Population Factors
    • Stage of Economic Development
    • Extent of Foreign Investment
    • Transport
  • Important aspects of International Trade
    • Volume of Trade
    • Composition of Trade
    • Direction of Trade
    • Balance of Trade
  • Types of International Trade
  • Case of Free Trade
  • WTO – World Trade Organisation and Regional Trade Blocs
  • Gateways of International Trade
    • Ports
    • Industrial Ports
    • Commercial Ports
    • Comprehensive Ports
    • Inland Ports
    • Out Ports
    • Oil Ports
    • Port of call
    • Packet station
    • Entrepot Ports
    • Naval Ports

6. Settlement

  • Types and Patterns of settlements
    • Compact of Nucleated Settlements
    • Dispersed settlement
  • Rural Settlements                                   
    • Factors affecting location of rural settlements
    • Patterns of Rural settlements
  • Urban Settlements
    • Classification of Urban Settlements
    • Factors affecting location of rural settlements
    • Functions of Urban Centre
    • Classification of Towns on the basis of Forms
    • Types of Urban Settlements
      • Town, City, Conurbation, Megalopolis, Million City
  • Issues of Urbanization in India
  • Rural Urban Migration
  • Emergence of Slums
  • Inclusive Cities/Smart cities

Indian Geography Syllabus for UPSC Prelims

1. Physiography of India

  • Physiography of India
    • Geological Region
    • Location
    • Physiographic Sub-Units
      • Himalayans
      • Northern Plains
      • Peninsular Plateau
      • Thar Desert
      • Coastal Plain
      • The Islands
    • Mountain System
      • Classification of The Himalayan System
      • Regional Division of the Himalaya
    • The Peninsular – Peninsular Plateaus
    • Plains – Northern Plains of India          
    • Lakes
    • Deserts
    • Indian Coasts and Islands

2. Drainage System

  • Classification of Drainage
  • Himalayan Drainage
  • Indus river system
  • Indus drainage system
  • Ganga River System
  • Brahmaputra river system
  • Peninsular River System
  • East flowing Rivers
  • West flowing Rivers
  • Mains Rivers and their tributaries
  • Famous cities and river banks

3. Climate

  • Factors influencing the climate of India
  • Monsoon
  • Mechanism of the Monsoon
    • Classical Theory
    • Modern theory
    • Air mass theory
    • Jet stream theory
  • EL NINO and LA NINA
  • Seasonal rhythm
  • Koppen’s Climatic classification
  • Indian Droughts and Floods

4. Soils in India

  • Soil Acidity
  • Soil textures
  • Minerals of Soil
  • Soil Erosion
  • Soil Conservation

5. Natural Vegetation

  • Vegetation
  • Mangroves
  • Distribution of Forest Area
  • Forest Problems in India

6. Population

  • Size, growth rate and distribution of population
  • India in World Population
  • Demographic transition
  • Census in India
  • Ranking of States and Union
  • Territories by population: 2001 & 2011
  • Population Growth Rates
  • Population: States and UT
  • Decadal growth rate
  • National Population Policy                   
  • Density of population
  • Literacy
  • Literacy in major states
  • Literacy rate in India: 1951-2011
  • Ranking of States and UTs by 206 literacy rate: 2011
  • Gender composition of the Population
  • Trends in Sex Ratio in India
  • Child sex ratio in age group 0-6 yrs
  • Sex ratio of age 7 years and above population
  • Old Age People
  • Health Indicators

7. Settlements and Urbanization

  • Rural Settlements
  • Factors affecting settlement patterns
  • Settlement types
  • Urbanization
  • Urban Agglomeration / Cities

8. Land Resource

  • Land-use
  • Land capability classification
  • Causes of Land Degradation
  • Impact of Land Degradation
  • Steps taken by GOI
  • Sustainable Land Management

9. Mineral Resource

  • Types of minerals: Metallic minerals
  • Non-metallic mineral
  • Distribution of minerals and mining regions
  • Distribution, production and international trade of Metallic minerals: Ferrous metals: Iron ore
  • Ferro-alloys and non-ferrous
  • Manganese
  • Chromium
  • Nickel
  • Tungsten
  • Antimony
  • Copper
  • Bauxite and Aluminium
  • Zinc; Lead
  • Tin
  • Gold
  • Silver
  • Platinum
  • Mineral chemicals
  • Mica
  • Potash
  • Phosphate
  • Nitrates
  • Sulphur
  • Conservation of mineral resources

10. Energy Resources

  • Classification of energy
  • Production of conventional energy
  • General trends of energy production and consumption
  • Reserves and sources of energy
  • Coal
  • Nature and origin of coal
  • Constituents and kinds of coal
  • Coal fields and coal production
  • Byproducts of coal
  • Conservation of Coal
  • Petroleum
  • Nature and properties of petroleum
  • Origin and recovery
  • Exploration
  • Petroleum refining
  • Petroleum reserves
  • Producing areas
  • Consumption of petroleum
  • International trade
  • OPEC and its role in oil trade
  • Natural gas: Reserves and Production
  • Hydro-electricity
  • Advantages of hydro-electricity
  • Ideal conditions for generation of hydro-electricity
  • Distribution of potential hydro-power
  • Hydro-electric power generation in India
  • Atomic (nuclear) energy
  • Atomic: source minerals: Uranium
  • World distribution of Uranium
  • Production of Uranium
  • Thorium
  • Production of Atomic (Nuclear) Energy
  • Nuclear Energy
  • Alternative (non-conventional) sources of energy
  • Solar energy
  • Wind energy
  • Geothermal power
  • Tidal energy
  • Wave energy
  • Biomass energy

11. Agriculture Basic Terminologies

  • Performance of the agriculture sector
  • Types of farming in India
  • Dry zone farming
  • Organic farming
  • Cropping seasons in India
  • Cropping Pattern in India
  • Agriculture regionalization
  • Infrastructure factors: Seeds; Fertilizers; Irrigation
  • Land use pattern in India
  • Institutional Factors as land reform
  • Horticulture sector in India
  • Agricultural revolutions
  • Agricultural labours
  • Price Policy for Agriculture
  • Agricultural marketing
  • Agricultural Insurance
  • Agricultural Census
  • Major schemes in agricultural sector
  • National Policy for farmers
  • Impact of climate change on agriculture
  • What is sustainable agriculture?
  • Use of IT in agriculture
  • Agriculture Issues and Challenges

12. Recent Developments in Agriculture Field

  • NITI Aayog proposed the idea of taxation of agricultural income
  • Removing agricultural commodities from the essential commodities Act: NITI Aayog
  • Feminization of Agriculture
  • e-auction portal : e-Rakam for selling agricultural produce
  • “AGRI-UDAAN” – Food and agri-business acceleration 2.0 to bring startup revolution
  • APEDA (Agricultural and Processed Food  Products Export Development Authority Act)
  • SMAM (Sub-Mission on Agricultural Mechanization)
  • Jute-ICARE Project
  • Project CHAMAN
  • Doubling the farmers income: Ashok Dalwai Committee
  • RKVY-RAFTAAR
  • Agro Irradiation Centers
  • Agricultural Marketing and Farm Friendly Reforms Index
  • National Food Security Act
  • Digitization and Agriculture
  • Direct Benefit Transfer in Fertilizer Sector
  • Draft Regulation on Fortification of Foods
  • Law Commission Recommendation on Food Laws
  • Concept of Modern Terminal Markets
  • Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries
  • e-Pashuhaat Portal
  • Schemes of Bio-Tech Kisan and Cattle Genomics
  • RashtriyaGokul Mission
  • Mission Fingerling
  • Ornamental Fishing
  • Agricultural Science Congress
  • RubSiS
  • Ethanol Blending
  • National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources
  • Amendments to the NABARD Act, 1981
  • Revenue Insurance Scheme for Plantation Crops
  • Neem Coating of Urea
  • National Agriculture Market

13. Productivity of Crops and conditions for growth

  • Wheat
    • Conditions of growth
    • Varieties
    • Types of cultivation
    • Production pattern
    • International trade
  • Rice
    • Conditions of growth
    • Varieties
    • Methods of cultivation
    • Production pattern
    • International trade
  • Maize (Corn)
    • Conditions of growth
    • Production pattern
    • International trade
  • Barley
    • Conditions of growth
    • Production pattern
    • International trade
  • Oats
  • Rye
  • Beverages
  • Tea
    • Condition of growth
    • Production pattern
    • International trade
  • Coffee
    • Types of coffee
    • Conditions of growth
    • Production pattern
    • International trade
  • Cocoa
    • Conditions of growth
    • Production pattern
    • International trade
  • Tobacco
    • Conditions of growth
    • Production pattern
    • International trade
  • Fibre Crops
  • Cotton
    • Varieties of cotton
    • Conditions of growth
    • Production pattern
    • International trade
  • Jute
    • Conditions of growth
    • Production pattern
    • International trade
  • Substitutes of Jute: Flax, Hemp
    • Raw Silk
    • Production pattern
  • States
  • Natural Rubber
    • Other sources of rubber
    • Plantations in South-east Asia
    • Production pattern
  • Sugarcane
    • Conditions of growth
    • Production pattern
    • International trade
    • Sugarbeet—Conditions of growth
    • Production pattern
    • Sugar industry
    • Sugar consumption
    • International trade.

14. Industry

  • Industrial development
  • Iron and Steel Industry
  • Location of iron and steel industry
  • Development of iron manufacture
  • Distribution of iron and steel industry
  • Global steel production
  • International trade in Steel
  • Textile Industry
  • Cotton Textile Industry: Location of the industry
  • Recent trends in localization
  • Distribution and production of cotton textiles
  • Woollen textile industry: Location of the industry
  • Silk textile industry: Raw silk manufacture
  • Silk textile manufacturing
  • Synthetic (artificial) silk industry
  • Distribution of man-made fibre and fabrics
  • Engineering Industries
  • Machine tools and machines: Areas of production
  • Industrial machinery: Textile machinery
  • Agricultural machinery
  • Manufacturing of transport equipment
  • Automobile industry
  • Shipbuilding
  • Aircrafts Industry
  • Fertilizer industry: Nitrogen fertilizers
  • Phosphate fertilizers
  • Potash fertilizers
  • Agro-industries
  • Synthetic rubber industry
  • Pulp and paper industry: Essential conditions for pulp production
  • Production of paper and paper board
  • Newsprint
  • Cement industry
  • Distribution of cement industry
  • Recent trends: Main global competitors
  • Petroleum refining industry: Localization
  • Site selection of petroleum refineries
  • History of oil refineries
  • World pattern of oil refining
  • Petroleum products
  • Industrial Regions
  • Characteristics of industrial regions
  • Delimitation of an industrial region
  • Principal intrial regions of the world
  • Industrial regions of Anglo America—USA, Canada, Western Europe and Central Britain, Germany, Belgium, Netherlands, France, Italy, Eastern Europe, Poland, Former USSR
  • Eastern Asia—Japan, China, the ‘Dragons’, India, High tech patterns.

15. Transport

  • mportance and development of transport
  • Means of transport
  • Transport costs and economic distance
  • Operating costs in transport
  • Relative importance of means of transport: Railways, Roads, Pipeline, Oceans, Air transport
  • Profits and freight rates
  • Government’s transport policy
  • Ocean transport routes
  • Inland waterways
  • Main regions of inland waterways
  • Railways: Factors affecting the railroads
  • Distribution of railroads in the world
  • Air transport: Factors influencing air transport
  • Air transport in various continents
  • Pipeline transport
  • Petroleum (oil) pipelines
  • Gas pipelines

Recent Development in Transport Sector

  • Rural electrifi cation corporation: First green bond
  • Time and costs over runs of infrastructure projects
  • India’s First Mega Coastal Economic Zone (CEZ) to come up in Maharashtra
  • Logistic sector gets infrastructure status
  • AIIB approves $150 million for India infrastructure fund
  • Ro-Ro Ferry service
  • Bharatmala project for construction of 24,000 km of highway connecting Western and Eastern part
  • Union Ministry of shipping is planning 
    to expand Logistics Data Bank (LDB)
  • Railways India Development Fund
  • National Infrastructure Investment Fund
  • Defence Innovation Fund
  • Flexi Fare Method in Railway
  • Rail Cadre Management
  • TRI-NETRA in Railways
  • National Rail Plan 2030
  • India’s First Caterpillar Train
  • Green corridor concept
  • Made in India ‘Medha’ train
  • Antyodaya Express
  • Smart Railway Station
  • Yatri Mitra Seva
  • National Highways Interconnectivity
  • Vehicle Fleet Modernization Programme
  • Transit Oriented Development Policy
  • Logistic Effi ciency Enhancement Programme
  • Indian Bridge Management System
  • National Road Safety Policy
  • TARANG
  • E-trans
  • DEEP (Discovery of Efficient Electricity Pric
  • GARV II APP
  • Trading of Energy Saving Certifi cates
  • Powers for all 24×7
  • Draft National Electricity Plan
  • Habitat Commitment Index

Recent developments in Industrial Sector

  • Disinvestment of PSUs
  • Report titled “India’s Labor Market: A New Emphasis on Gainful Employment
  • Wage code Bill in line of recommendations of 2nd National Commission on Labor
  • CAR for the operation of Drones in India.
  • Draft Evaluation template for the star rating of Minor Minerals
  • Online database containing GIS-Enabled portal Maps land related information
  • Chennai-Bangalore Industrial Corridor
  • Apex Corridor Developmental Authority
  • Tamra Portal
  • Mining Surveillance System
  • Coal Mitra
  • M-SIPS for Electronic Sector
  • Indian Enterprise Development Service
  • Trade Receivables Discounting System
  • SME Business Environment Index

World Regional Geography Syllabus for UPSC Prelims

1. Continents Countries and Cities

  • Continents and Important Cities of the World
  • Important Cities Situated on the Banks of Rivers
  • Changed Names of Some Cities, States, and Countries
  • Distinctive Names of Countries/Towns— Geographical Epithets
  • Regional Grouping of Countries of the World
  • Economic Classification of Countries of the World

2. Location in NEWS

  • Govardhan Eco village
  • City livability index
  • Sardar Sarovar Dam in Gujarat
  • Yethinahole Project
  • SMARTGRAM
  • Kaladan project in Myanmar
  • Doklam plateau
  • Gilgit-Ballistan
  • SCO Summit-Astana
  • Bosporus strait
  • Nathu-La
  • Lisbon
  • Mahadayi tribunal
  • Jaravas
  • Bengaluru declaration
  • SASEC road connectivity
  • Doklam
  • dams bottom trawling
  • Hambantota Port
  • World Petroleum Congress, Turkey
  • Kaleshwaram project
  • Mega food park in Kapurthala
  • Assam’s disturbed area tag
  • North Koel project
  • BIMSTEC
  • Conservation of Pagodas to Bagan
  • Bridge over Mechi River
  • Pangong Lake
  • World’s most liveable city
  • Asia Africa Corridor
  • Xiamen declaration
  • Sir Creek
  • Chakma, Majong Refugees Rohingya
  • Cleanest Iconic place Meenakshi temple
  • OBOR
  • Hambantota
  • Chahbahar Port
  • Gwadar Port
  • National Waterway – 4
  • Polavaram project
  • UNESCO creative cities network
  • Singapore Changi Naval base
  • India in Antarctica
  • Concept of Resilient Cities
  • Sericulture
  • Blizzards
  • New tectonic plate discovered
  • Report on Palaeo Channel of North West India
  • Cyclones in News

Ecology and Environment Syllabus for UPSC Prelims

UPSC Syllabus- Environmental Ecology

  1. Origin of Life forms
    • Origin of Life forms
    • Life on earth
  2. Basic Concepts of Ecology
    • Types of Ecology
    • Ecological Hierarchy
    • Scope of Ecology
    • Habitat & Ecological Niche
    • Deep vs Shallow Ecology
    • Ecological Principles
    • Ecological Community
      • Structure and Characteristics of a Community
      • Stratification
      • Ecotone
      • Ecological Dominance
      • Seasonal and Diurnal Fluctuation
      • Periodicity
      • Turnover
      • Interdependence
    • Ecological Succession
      • Types and Process of Succession
      • Climax Community
    • Range of Tolerance , Maximum Range
    • Difference between Ecology , Environment and Ecosystem
  3. Ecosystem functions
    • Ecosystem Definitions
    • Functions and Properties of Ecosystem
    • The Structure/Components of Ecosystem
      • Abiotic Components
      • Biotic Components
    • Ecosystem Dynamics
      • Flow of Energy in Ecosystem
      • Trophic Levels
      • Food Chain
      • Types & Significance of Food Chain
      • Food Web
      • Models for Energy Flow
      • Ecological Productivity
      • Ecological Pyramid
    • Biomagnifications
    • Biological Control
  4. Population Ecology
    • Types of species
    • Population Ecology
    • Population Growth Models
    • Methodology of Tiger census
    • Methodology of Lion Census
  5. Adaptation of Species and Interactions
    • Adaptation
      • Examples of adaptation in plants
      • Examples of Adaptations in animals
    • Homeostasis
    • Interaction between Species
    • Ecotone
    • Endemic Species
    • Keystone Species
    • Indicator Species
    • Invasive Species
    • Allopatric and Sympatric Speciation
  6. Terrestrial Ecosystems
    • Terrestrial ecosystem
    • Forest Ecosystem in India
    • Grasslands
    • Tundra
    • Deserts
    • Mountains
  7. Aquatic Ecosystem
    • Aquatic ecosystem
    • Factors affecting the productivity of aquatic ecosystems
    • Fresh water ecosystem
    • Marine ecosystem
    • Marine Organisms
    • Plankton
    • Phytoplankton
    • Factors Affecting Phytoplankton Biodiversity
      • Importance of phytoplankton
      • Zooplankton
      • Sea-grass
      • Seaweeds
    • Human Modified Ecosystems
  8. Nutrient Cycling
    • Concept of Biogeochemical Cycle
      • Parts of a Biogeochemical Cycle
      • Types of Biogeochemical Cycle
    • Carbon Cycle
      • Steps in the carbon cycle
      • Carbon cycle: Long term and Short term
      • Carbon act as Climate Buffer
      • Human Impact on the Carbon Cycle
      • Effects of high concentration of Greenhouse Gases
    • Hydrological Cycle
      • Different Steps of the Hydrologic Cycle
      • Storage
    • Nitrogen Cycle
      • Human Impact on the Nitrogen Cycle
    • Oxygen Cycle
    • Sulphur Cycle
      • Human Impact on the Sulphur Cycle
    • Phosphorus Cycle
      • Human Influence on Phosphorus Cycle

Biodiversity Syllabus for UPSC Prelims

  1. Basics of Biodiversity
    • Biodiversity
    • Types of biodiversity
    • Patterns of biodiversity
    • Bio-geographical classification of World
    • Bio-geographical classification of India
    • Functions of biodiversity
    • Hotspots of biodiversity
    • Bio informatics
    • Eco Regions
    • Role of Traditional Knowledge in Biodiversity
    • Biopiracy
  2. Animal and Plant Diversity
    • Plant and Animal Kingdom
      • Marine Mammals
      • Egg laying Mammals
      • Marsupials
  3. Threats to biodiversity
    • Causes of Biodiversity losses
    • Effects of Loss of Bio-Diversity
    • Extinction of species
    • Mass Extinction
    • IUCN Red List and Classification Scheme
  4. Biodiversity Conservation
    • Scheduled Animals in the Wildlife Protection Act
    • In-situ methods of Conservation
      • Protected Area Categories
      • Forms of Protected Areas
      • Biosphere reserves
      • Sacred forests and sacred lakes
      • World Heritage sites
      • Geo-heritage sites
      • Advantages of In-situ conservation
      • Disadvantages of In-situ conservation
    • Ex-situ methods of Conservation
      • Advantages of ex-situ preservation:
      • Disadvantages of Ex-situ conservation
    • Zoological Parks
    • Botanical Gardens
    • Seed banks
  5. National Parks
  6. Wildlife Sanctuaries
  7. Biosphere Reserves
  8. Species based conservation programmes
    • Project Tiger
    • Project Elephant
    • Project Snow Leopard
    • Vulture conservation project
    • Crocodile conservation project
    • Ganges dolphin project
    • Indian Rhino Vision
    • Other projects
    • India adopts SAWEN
  9. Important Coastal and marine Biodiversity Areas
  10. Global initiative
    • State of Protected Areas in the World
    • MAB – Man and Biosphere Programme
    • World network of Biosphere Reserves
    • Biodiversity Hotspots
    • CBD – Convention of Biological Diversity
    • Cartegana Protocol
    • Nagoya Protocol
    • Aichi Biodiversity Diversity
  11. Estuaries
    • What are estuaries?
    • Types of Estuaries
    • Importance of estuaries
    • Threats to estuaries
    • Major Estuaries in Indian coastal states
    • Monitoring and Prediction of Health of Estuarine and Coastal Waters
    • Difference between Lagoon and Estuary
    • Estuary ecosystem: Adaptations made in organisms
    • Conservation of Estuaries
  12. Mangroves
    • What are mangroves?
    • Mangroves in India
    • Importance of Mangroves
    • Mangroves under threats
    • Legal and Regulatory Approaches for Protection
    • Community based mangrove regeneration
  13. Coral Reef
    • About coral reefs
    • What do corals feed on?
    • Geographical Conditions
    • Types Of Coral Reefs
    • Uses of coral reefs
    • Concept of Bio-rock reefs
    • Threats to Coral reefs
    • Conservation of coral reef
  14. Wetlands
    • What are wetlands?
    • Types of wetlands
    • Wetlands in India
    • Importance of wetlands
    • Threats to wetland ecosystems
    • Conservation of Wetlands
    • About Ramsar Convention ‘
    • About Asian Water bird Census

UPSC Syllabus- Resource Degradation and Management

  1. Land Resource
    • Causes of land degradation
    • Impact of land degradation
    • Desertification
    • Sustainable Land Management
  2. Forest Resource
    • Definition of forests by FSI
    • Types of Forest Cover
    • Forest Survey of India (FSI report 2017)
    • Types of Forests In India
    • Deforestation
    • Causes of Deforestation
    • Consequences of Deforestation on the Wildlife of India
    • Strategies for Reducing Deforestation
    • Government Programmes for Conservation of Forests
  3. Soil Resource
    • Soil Characteristics and Soil formation process
    • Factors Responsible for Soil Formation
    • Soil Forming Processes
    • Soil Profiles and Horizons
    • Type of Soils
    • Soils in India
    • Soils in World
    • Soil Erosion
    • Problems due to excessive irrigation
    • Soil Conservation
    • Soil health card scheme
    • Organic Farming
  4. Water Pollution
    • Surface Water Resource
    • Ground Water Resources
    • Sources of Water Pollution
    • Measurement of Water pollution
    • Causes of Water Pollution
    • Harmful effects of water pollution
    • Other terms associated with water pollution
      • Algal Bloom
      • Eutrophication
      • Arsenic contamination of water
      • Mercury Pollution
      • Oxygen Stratification
  5. Energy Resources
    • Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion
    • Tidal Energy
    • Wave energy
    • Fuel Cell
    • Microbial fuel cell
    • Biofuels
    • Biogas
    • Geothermal Energy
    • Solar Energy
    • New Energy Resources
    • Renewable Energy and Development
    • Petroleum Conservation Research Association
    • Atomic Energy Bill
    • Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Bill
    • National Electric Mobility Mission Plan        
    • National Policy on Biofuels
    • Three Stage Nuclear Power Programme
    • Solar Renewable purchase Obligation
    • Petroleum Planning & Analysis Cell
    • New Energy Policy
    • Energy Organisation

UPSC Syllabus- Environmental Pollution

  1. Basics of Pollution
    • Sources of pollution
      • Effect of Modern Agriculture on Environment
      • Effect of Housing on Environment
      • Effect of Power Generation on Environment
      • Effect of River Valley Projects (Water Resource Projects) on Environment
      • Effect of Mining on Environment
      • Effect of Transportation Activities on Environment
      • Effect of Tourism on Environment
    • Classification of pollutants
    • Pollution Indicator species
  2. Mining and Pollution
    • Mining and Environment
    • Sensitivity of Select Ecosystems to Mining
    • Impact of Mining
    • Indirect Impact of Mining
    • International Laws on Mining
    • Main Act or Statue to regulate the impact of
    • Indian Mining Sector
    • Sustainable Mining
  3. Air Pollution
    • Causes of air pollution
    • Harmful Effects of air pollution
    • Top-ten gases in air pollution
    • Control of Air Pollution
    • Concepts related to Air pollution
      • Smog and its impact
      • Ozone depletion
      • Acid rain
      • Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM)
      • Fly Ash
      • Bharat stage Norm
      • National Air Quality Index
      • Comprehensive Environmental Pollution Index
  4. Marine Pollution
    • Sources of marine pollution
    • Effects of marine pollution
    • Concept of dead zone
    • Concept of Ocean acidification
    • Oil spill
    • Trash and Other Debris in ocean
    • Microplastics and its impact
    • Coastal Regulation Zone Notification, 2011               
  5. Noise Pollution
    • Causes of Noise pollution
    • Noise Levels
    • Effects of Noise Pollution on human health
    • Corrective actions
  6. Biological Pollution
    • Sources of biological pollution
    • Harmful effects from biological contaminants
    • Corrective actions
  7. Radioactive Pollution
    • Sources of Radioactive Pollution
    • Harmful effects of Radioactive Pollution
    • Corrective actions
  8. Thermal Pollution
    • Causes of Thermal Pollution
    • Effect of Thermal Pollution
    • Control of Thermal Pollution
  9. Waste Management
    • Solid waste management
      • Types of Solid Waste
      • What is solid waste management?
      • Issues in solid waste management in India
      • Waste Management Practices
      • Technologies for the Generation of Energy from Waste
      • Policy on Promotion of City Compost
      • Salient features of SWM Rules, 2016
    • E-Waste Management
      • Pollutants and their health impacts
      • E-waste status in India
      • Importance of the E-waste management
      • Steps taken for combating mounting E-Waste
      • E-waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 2016
    • Biomedical Waste Management
      • Hazards associated with waste management
      • Bio-Medical Waste Management Rules, 2016
    • Hazardous waste and its Characteristics
    • Hazardous and Other Wastes (Management & Trans-boundary Movement) Rules, 2016
    • Treatments Methods in Waste Management
      • Methods for sewage treatment
      • Treatments Methods for waste management
    • Hazardous waste treatement

UPSC Syllabus- Climate Change

  1. Climate Change Basics
    • What is Climate Change?
    • What is Global warming?
    • Factors Affecting Climate Change
    • Causes of climate change
      • Extra-Terrestrial Sources of Climate Change
      • Terrestrial Sources of Climate Change
      • Anthropogenic sources of Climate Change
    • Urbanization and climate change
      • Pollution in metros and climate change
      • Real estate boom and environment degradation
      • Urban Heat Island
      • Polythene bags and pollution
      • Methane generation from waste
    • Impact of agriculture on climate
      • Agriculture increases Carbon Dioxide Emissions
      • Monoculture practice impacts biodiversity
      • Pollution due to use of chemical fertilizers
      • Soil-related effects
      • Fertilizer’s Effect on the Environment
      • Impact of livestock on environment
      • Impact of use of Pesticides on environment
      • Impact of GM crop on environment
      • Emission of Methane from agricultural practices
      • Sustainable Agriculture Techniques
      • What is greenhouse effect?
    • Non green House Gases and Aerosols
    • Radioactive forcing and global warming
    • Ecological footprint
    • Carbon footprint
    • Global Warming Potential (GWP)
  2. Climate Change Impact
    • Impacts of the Climate Change
      • Acid Rain
      • El Nino
      • La Nina
      • Ozone Depletion
      • Ocean Acidification
    • Global Warming & Health
      • Health impacts of global warming
      • Mosquito-borne diseases
      • Ozone depletion and human health
    • Climate change mitigation
      • Carbon Sequestration
      • Carbon Sink
      • Carbon Credit
      • Carbon Tax

UPSC Syllabus- Environmental Governance

  1. Acts and Policies
    • Constitutional Provisions related to environment
    • Wildlife Protection Act 1972
    • Environmental Protection Act
    • National Forest Policy
    • Biological Diversity Act 2002
    • Schedule Tribes and Other Forest
    • Dwellers Act 2006
    • Coastal Regulation Zone
    • Wetland Rules 2010
    • National Green Tribunal
    • Ozone Depleting Substance Rules
  2. Environment Impact Assessment (EIA)
    • What is EIA?
    • Brief History of EIA in India
    • EIA Process in India
    • The 8 steps of the EIA process             
    • Environmental Appraisal Process
    • Drawback in EIA Process
    • Recommendations for Improvement
    • Environment Management
    • EIA in India – Sectorial Analysis
      • Mining Sector
      • Agricultural Sector
      • Industrial Sector
  3. International Environmental Governance
    • UNEP
    • UNDP
    • Centre for Biological Diversity
    • WWF for Nature
    • IUCN – Red List                                      
    • Birdlife International
    • International Conventions / Protocols & their Objectives
    • Sustainable Development Goals
    • Various Indices relate to Environment
    • Climate Change Governance
      • United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm Conference)
      • United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
      • Montreal Protocol and Kigali Agreement
      • The Earth Summit: United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), Rio de Janerio, 1992
      • Global Environment Facility (GEF)
      • Rio Declaration: 1992
      • Agenda 21:1992
      • Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD)
      • United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)
      • United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC): 1992
    • Global Climate Finance Architecture
  4. India and Climate Change
    • India’s Position with regards to policy on Climate Change
    • Observed Climate and Weather Changes in India
    • NAPCC
    • Indian Climate Change Assessement
    • Indian Policy Structure Relavant to GHG Emissions
  5. Environment related Institutions in India
    • Pollution Control Boards
    • National Green Tribunal
    • National Board for Wildlife
    • Animal Welfare Board
    • Central Zoo Authority
    • National Biodiversity Authority
  6. Environmental schemes in India
    • National Wildlife Action Plan
    • CAMPA
    • Joint Forest Management
    • Social Forestry
    • National Bamboo Mission
    • National Action Plan on Climate Change
    • National Solar Mission
    • Ganga Rejuvenation Plan
    • Benefits of River Ganga
      • Facts about Ganga River Pollution and its impacts
    • Ecomark Scheme
    • Swachch Bharat Mission
    • Swachch Bharat Kosh
    • Grants in Aid Scheme
    • National Afforestation Program
    • National River Conservation Plan
    • National Mission for Clean Ganga
    • National Air Quality Index (AQI)
    • National Action Programme to Combat  Desertification
    • Pradhan Mantri Sauchalay Yojana
    • UJALA Scheme
    • Bharat Stage Norms
    • Corporate Social Responsibility and Environment Protection
  7. APPENDIX
    • National Parks
    • Tiger Reserves of India
    • Elephant Reserves in India
    • Mike Sites in India
    • Biosphere Reserves
    • Biosphere Reserves in UNESCO’s Map List
    • Ramsar Wetland Sites
    • Natural World Heritage Sites
    • List of Sacred Groves
    • Mangrove Sites in India
    • Pollution
      • Key activities and Likely Associate Air Pollutants
      • Respiratory Irritants and Toxic Chemicals
  8. Recent Developments
    • Mobile Tower Radiation
    • Shrinking of Cauvery Delta
    • Use of Garbage to Construct Road
    • Moss as Pollution Monitor
    • Graded Plan for Air Pollution
    • Air Quality Index
    • Polluter Pay Principle
    • Pesticide Poisoning
    • Aerosols
    • Anti-Smog guns
    • Particulate matter
    • Nalanda Model of Water Conservation
    • Wetland Rules, 2017
    • Permaculture and Monoculture
    • Sand Mining Guidelines
    • Coastal Erosion (Parali Island)
    • Bottom Trawling to Deep Sea Fishing
    • ‘Wadi’ Model
    • Re-greening of Village Commons Project
    • Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage
    • Namami Ganga Programme                
    • River Ganga (Rejuvenation, Protection and Management) Authorities Order, 2016
    • Smart Ganga City Scheme
    • Ganga Task Force
    • Ganga, Yamuna termed ‘living persons’
    • National Capacity Building Project for Waste Management
    • NGT Bans Plastic
    • Mission Innovation
    • Tribunal – Dumping Waste in Ganga
    • Ease in Norms for Sewage Plants
    • Organic Waste to Make Green Fuel
    • New Technologies for Waste Management
    • Melting of Antarctic Iceberg
    • Melting of Gangotri Glacier
    • Carbon Capture
    • Black Carbon
    • 30th Montreal Protocol and World Ozone Day
    • El-Nino Caused Record CO2 Spike
    • Glaciers in Asia to sink
    • Tropics emit more Carbon
    • Climate change impact on Natural Heritage Sites – Impact on Sunderbans
    • Marine Diversity in Antarctica under threat
    • Carbon Credit
    • 2nd Kyoto Protocol
    • Green Metro System
    • Negative Emissions
    • Geo-engineering Climate Change
    • Sequestering CO2
    • Bonn Challenge
    • COP-23
    • Air Quality Index likely to be added to ‘playing condition”
    • HFCs – India to eliminate use by 2030
    • Kigali agreement
    • Carbon Neutrality Concept
    • Marrakesh Climate Change Conference
    • International Solar Alliance (ISA)
    • Kyoto Protocol (2nd Commitment 2013-20)
    • Climate Change Performance Index

Indian Polity Syllabus for UPSC Prelims

UPSC Syllabus- EVOLUTION OF THE CONSTITUTION

  1. The Company Rule (1773-1858)
    • Regulating Act, 1773
    • Amending Act, 1781
    • Pitt’s India Act, 1784
    • Amending Act of 1786
    • Charter Act, 1793
    • Charter Act, 1813
    • Charter Act, 1833
    • Charter Act, 1853
  2. The Crown Rule (1858-1947)
    • Government of India Act, 1858
    • Indian Councils Act, 1861
    • Indian Councils Act, 1892
    • Indian Councils Act, 1909
    • Government of India Act, 1919
    • Simon Commission
    • Government of India Act, 1935
    • Indian Independence Act, 1947
  3. Drafting and Sources of Indian Constitution)
    • Seminal Sources
    • External Sources
    • Developmental Sources
    • Constitutional Practices
    • Important Committees of the Constituent Assembly and their Chairman

UPSC Syllabus- SALIENT FEATURES OF INDIAN CONSTITUTION

  1. Constitution and Types
    • What is a Constitution?
    • Types of Constitution
    • Functions of the Constitution
    • Historical evolution of the Constitution
    • Constituent Assembly
    • Objectives of the Constitution
    • Unitary features
    • Federal features
  2. Types of Political System
    • Types of Political System
    • Types of Government
    • Parliamentary form of government
    • Features of the Presidential System
    • Features of Semi-Presidential System
  3. Types of Majorities as per the Indian Constitution
    • Absolute Majority
    • Effective Majority
    • Simple Majority
    • Special Majority
  4. Preamble and Values in the Constitution
    • The objectives laid down in the Preamble
    • Whether the Preamble is a partof the Constitution or not?
    • Whether Preamble can be amended or not?
      • Ideals (mentioned in the Preamble)
      • Democratic
      • Sovereign
      • Socialist
      • Secular
      • Republic
      • Justice
      • Equality
      • Liberty
      • Fraternity
      • Integrity
  5. Amendment of the Constitution
    • Procedure for amendment
    • Types of Amendments
    • Amendability of FR’s
    • Ingredients of basic structure
  6. Doctrine and Terms
    • Doctrine of severability
    • Validity of Re-Constitutional Laws
    • Doctrine of Eclipse
    • Doctrine of Harmonious Construction
    • Doctrine of Pith and Substance
    • Doctrine of Colorable Legislation (Article 246)
    • Doctrine of Territorial Nexus
    • Doctrine of Laches
    • Due Process of Law
    • Procedure Established by Law
  7. Other Constitutional Dimensions
    • Schedules and Subjects
    • Official Languages

UPSC Syllabus- UNION & ITS TERRITORY

  1. ARTICLE 1-4
    • Article 1: Name and Territory of the Union
    • Committee/commission for StateRe-organisation
    • The State Reorganization Commission(SRC) 1953
    • Article 2: Admit or Establish new State
    • Article 3: Formation of new States andalternation of areas, boundaries or names of existing States
    • Article 4: Laws made under articles2 and 3 to provide for the amendment of the First and the Fourth Schedule and Supplemental.
    • Delimitation Commission

UPSC Syllabus- CITIZENSHIP

  1. Constitutional Provisions
    • Constitutional provisions of citizenship
    • Citizenship Act, 1955
    • The Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2016
    • Methodology of getting citizenship
    • Modes of Losing the Citizenship of India
    • Concept of dual citizenship
    • Special privileges enjoyed bycitizens in India
    • Rights and Duties of Citizens
  2. Indian Diaspora
    • Pravasi Bhartiya Divas
    • Non-Resident Indians

FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS

  1. Evolution Objectives And Features
    • Meaning
    • Objectives
    • Features
    • Importance
    • Restrictive limitations on fundamental rights
  2. Article 12 and Article 13
    • Definition of state
    • Laws Inconsistent with Fundamental Rights
  3. Right to Equality
    • Article 14: Equality before the lawor the Equal protection of Law
    • Article 15: Prohibition of Discriminationon the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth
    • Article 16: Equality of Opportunityin matters of Public Employment
    • Article 17: Abolition of Untouchability
    • Article 18: Abolition of Titles
  4. Right to Freedom
    • Article 19
    • Article 20: (Protection in respectof conviction for offenses)
    • Article 21: Protection of life andpersonal liberty
    • Article 22: Protection against arrestand detention
  5. Right against Exploitation
    • Article 23: Prohibition of Trafficin human beings and forced labour
    • Article 24: Prohibition of employmentof children in factories, etc
  6. Right to Freedom of Religion
    • Article 25: Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation or religion
    • Article 26: Freedom to manage religious affairs
    • Article 27: Freedom from payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion.
    • Article 28: Freedom from attendance religious instruction or worship in educational institutions
  7. Cultural and Educational Rights
    • Article 29: Protection of interest of Minorities
    • Article 30: Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions
  8. Right to Constitutional Remedies
    • Article 32: Right to Constitutional Remedies:
      • Habeas Corpus
      • Mandamus
      • Certiorari
      • Prohibition
      • Quo Warranto
  9. FR’s other Dimensions
    • Article 33
    • Article 34
    • Article 35
    • Article 35A         

UPSC Syllabus- DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP)

  1. Evolution, objectives, and features
    • Basic features
    • Types
    • Amendments
    • Implementation
  2. Socialistic Principles
    • Article: 38
    • Article:39
    • Article: 39A
    • Article: 41
    • Article: 42
    • Article: 43
    • Article: 43-A
    • Article: 47
  3. Gandhian Principles
    • Article: 40
    • Article: 43
    • Article: 46
    • Article: 47
    • Article: 48
  4. Liberal-Intellectual Principles
    • Article: 44
    • Article: 45
    • Article: 48
    • Article: 48A
    • Article: 49
    • Article: 50
    • Article: 51
  5. Directive Principle Outside Part IV
    • ARTICLE 335 IN PART XVI
    • ARTICLE 350-A IN PART XVII
    • Article 351 in Part XVII

UPSC Syllabus- FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES

  1. Article: 51A
    • Features
    • Relation between of Fundamental Rightsand Fundamental Duties
    • List Of Fundamental Duties
    • 86th Constitutional Amendment Act 2003 : RTE
  2. Recent Developments
    • Fundamental Duties – Awareness Campaigns is the Duty of Centre
    • National Anthem – Mandatoryin Cinema Halls – Article 51(a)
    • Prevention of Insults toNational Honour Act, 1971
    • Triple Talaq Issue
    • Uniform Civil Code
    • MGNREGA: Right to Work
    • Making Aadhar mandatory

UPSC Syllabus- SYSTEM OF GOVERNANCE

  1. Centre-State Relations
    • Legislative relations (Articles) 245
    • Related to Territorial Powers
    • Related to Legislative Powers
    • Related to Parliament’s Powersto make Laws in State
    • Sarkaria Commission’s Opinionon Legislative Relations
    • Administrative Relations
    • Delegation of Union Functionsto the States
    • Sarkaria Commission’s Opinionon Administrative Relations
    • Financial relations
    • National Integration Council
  2. Inter State Relation
    • Inter state water dispute
    • Inter state councils
    • Inter state trade and commerce
    • Zonal Councils
  3. Special Provisoions for some States
    • Provisions for Maharastra and Gujarat, Nagaland, Assam and Manipur
    • Provisions for Jammu and Kashmir (A370) (now abrogated)
  4. Types of Emergencies
    • National Emergency
    • Constitutional/State Emergency /President’s Rule
    • Financial Emergency

UPSC Syllabus- UNION EXECUTIVE

  1. President
    • Eligibility
    • Conditions of Office
    • Term of Office
    • Election
    • Manner of Election
    • Impeachment of the President
    • Impeachment of the President
    • Vacancy in the Office of President
    • Powers of the President
      • Executive powers (Article 53)
      • Legislative Powers
      • Financial Powers
      • Ordinance Issuing Power (Article 123)
      • Judicial/Pardoning Power
      • Military
      • Diplomatic
      • Emergency Powers
  2. Vice President
    • Qualification
    • Conditions of Office
    • Term of Office
    • Election
    • Removal
    • Vacancy
    • Functions of the Vice-President
  3. The Prime Minister
    • Appointment
    • Eligibility
    • Powers and Functions of Prime Minister
    • Relationship between the President 
      and the Prime Minister
    • Deputy Prime Minister
    • Prime Minister’s Office
  4. Union Council of Minister
    • Article 74: Council of Ministers to aidand advice President
    • Article 75: Other Provisions as to Ministers
    • Article 77: Conduct of Businessof the Government of India
    • Article 78: Duties of Prime Minister
    • Nature of advice by Ministers
    • Strength of the Council
    • Appointment of a Non-legislator as a Minister
    • Collective responsibility of the Ministers
    • Individual Responsibility of Ministers

UPSC Syllabus- UNION LEGISLATURE

  1. Organisation of Parliament
    • Organisation of Parliament
    • Qualifications and Disqualifications forbeing a Member of Parliament (Article 84)
    • Functions of the Parliament
    • Functioning of the Parliament
    • Sessions of Parliament
    • Devices of Parliamentary Proceedings
    • Parliamentary Privileges and Immunities
    • Collective Privileges of the House
    • Individual Privileges
    • Houses of the Parliament
  2. Parliament, Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha
    • Lok Sabha Composition
    • Rajya Sabha Composition
    • Presiding Officers of the Parliament
    • Speaker
    • Powers & Functions of the speaker
    • Deputy Speaker
    • Panel of Chairpersons of Lok Sabha
    • Speaker Pro Tem
    • Chairman of Rajya Sabha
    • Deputy Chairman of Rajya Sabha
    • Panel of Vice-Chairpersons of Rajya Sabha
    • Chairman and Deputy chairman of the Council of States
  3. Legislative Procedure and Committees of Parliament
    • Legislative Procedure in Parliament
    • Ordinary Bill
    • Money Bill
    • Financial Bill
    • Constitution Amendment Bill
    • Lapsing of Bills
    • Annual Financial Statement: Budget (Article 112)
    • Demand of Grants
    • Appropriation Bill
    • Cut motions
    • Stages in Enactment of Budget
    • Other Grants
    • Related Information of Budget
    • Parliamentary committees

UPSC Syllabus- STATE EXECUTIVE

  1. Governor
    • Article 152: Definition
    • Article 153: Governors of States
    • Article 154: Executive power of State
      • Powers of Governor
      • Executive power
      • Legislative power
      • Financial Power
      • Judicial Power
    • Discretionary power
    • Article 155: Appointment of Governor
    • Article 156: Term of office of Governor
    • Article 157: Qualifications for Appointment as Governor
    • Article 158: Conditions of Governor’s office
    • Article 159: Oath or affirmation by the Governor
    • Article 160: Discharge of the functions of the Governor in certain contingencies
    • Article 161
    • Article 162: Extent of executive power of State
    • Recommendations on the office of Governor
    • ARC (Administrative Reforms Commission)
    • Sarkaria Commission
    • National Commission to Review the working of the Constitution
  2. The Chief Minister and the CoM
    • Powers and Functions of Chief Minister
      • In Relation to Council of Ministers
      • In relation to the Governor
      • In Relation to State Legislature
      • Other Powers and Functions
    • Composition of the Council of Ministers
    • Responsibility of Ministers
    • Advocate-General for the State

UPSC Syllabus- STATE LEGISLATURE

  1. Legislative Assembly
    • Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha)
    • Powers and Functions
    • Speaker & Deputy Speaker
    • Parliament’s Control over State Legislature
  2. Legislative Council (Article 169)
    • Qualifications
    • Powers and Functions

UPSC Syllabus- LOCAL GOVERNMENT

  1. Panchayati Raj
    • Evolution of the Panchayati Raj Institution (PRI)
    • 73rd Amendment Act of 1992
    • Compulsory and Voluntary Provisions
  2. Urban Local Government
    • 74th Constitutional Amendment Act
    • Types of Urban Governments In India

UPSC Syllabus- UNION TERRITORIES AND SPECIAL AREAS

  1. Union Territories
    • Creation of Union Territories
    • Administration of UT’s
    • Special provisions for Delhi
    • Special Category Status
  2. Schedule and Tribal Areas
    • Administration of Schedule Areas
    • Administration of Tribal areas

UPSC Syllabus- THE JUDICIARY

  1. The Supreme Court
    • Chief Justice of India
    • Acting Chief Justice of India
    • Appointment of Supreme Court Judges
    • Qualifications for Supreme Court Judges
    • Removal of a Supreme Court Judges
    • Process of Impeachment
    • Ad hoc and Retired Judges
    • Salaries and allowances of SupremeCourt Judges
    • Chief Justices of India (Since 1951)
    • Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court
    • Judicial Independence
    • Judiciary Executive Relations
  2. The High Court Subordinate Courts & Lok Adalats
    • The High Courts
    • Jurisdiction of the High Courts
    • Subordinate Courts
    • Gram Nyayalayas Act, 2008
    • Alternative dispute Resolution
    • Lok Adalat
    • All India Judicial Service
    • E-governance in Judiciary
    • Judicial Impact Assessment
    • Judges Standards and AccountabilityBill, 2010
    • National Legal Services Authority (NALSA)

UPSC Syllabus- CONSTITUTIONAL & NON CONSTITUTIONAL BODIES

  • Constitutional Bodies
    • Finance Commission
      • Constitution
      • Functions
    • Comptrollerand Auditor General of India
      • Comptroller and Auditor-General
    • Attorney-General of India
      • Appointment
      • Functions and Responsibilities
    • Other Constitutional Bodies
      • All India Services
      • Union Public Service Commission (UPSC)
    • State Public Service Commission (SPSC)
    • Joint State public Service Commission (JSPSC)
    • National Commission For SCs
    • National Commission For STs
    • Special Officer for Linguistic Minority
    • The Advocate General (Article 165)
  • Non Constitutional
    • Special officer for linguistic Minorities
    • Central Information Commission
    • State Information Commission
    • Lokpal and Lok Ayukta
    • National Human Rights Commission
    • State Human Right Commission
    • CVC (Central Vigillance Commission)

UPSC Syllabus- POLITICAL DYNAMICS

  • Political Parties and Election
    • Electoral System in India
    • Electoral Reforms Since 1988
    • Salient features of the Representation of People Act, 1950
      • Salient features of Representation of Peoples Act, 1951
      • Elections in India
      • Electoral reforms since 1988
      • Criminalization of politics
      • Negative or neutral voting
      • State funding of Election
      • Irregularities in polling
    • Types of Political Parties
    • Party System in India
    • Political Parties in India
      • Problems in the working of parties
      • Casteism and Politic
      • Strengthening of Anti-defection measures
    • Pressure Groups
      • Meaning and Techniques
      • Pressure Groups in India
      • Types of pressure groups
        • Role of pressure groupin developing countries
        • Functions of pressure groups in India
        • Pressure groups methods
        • Pressure groups and Democracy
        • Criticism of pressure groups       

UPSC Syllabus- GOVERNANCE

  1. Governing Institutions in India
    • Structure of Ministries/departments
    • Political head
    • Secretariat organization secretary
    • Functions of the secretariat
    • Functions of attached and subordinate office
    • Other organizations
    • Public sector undertakings
    • The Executive organization
    • Advantages of the separation ofsecretariat and executive organization.
    • Strengths and weaknesses of theexisting structure
    • Recommendations for improvingthe Organizational structure
  2. Audit and other Transparency initiatives
    • CVC
    • CAG
    • Lokpal
    • Lok Ayukta
  3. Role of SHG, NGOs, Civil Society
    • SHGs
      • Characteristics
      • Role of SHGs in development
    • NGOs
      • Functions
      • Role of NGOs in development
    • Micro Finance Institutions
      • Salient features
      • Role of MFIs in development
  4. Social Sector Bills
    • The Juvenile Justice (Care andProtection of Children) Act
    • Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill, 2016
    • Child Labour (Prohibitionand Amendment) Bill, 2016
    • Maternity Benefit Bill, 2016
    • Pre-Conception & Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PNDT) Act
    • Mental Health Care Bill, 2013
    • Protection of Children from Sexual Offenses (POCSO)
    • Anti Trafficking Bill with Stringent Penalty
    • HIV and AIDS (Prevention and Control)Bill- 2014 – Amendments
    • Domestic Violence Act, 2005 – SC WidensAmbit
    • Rights of Persons with DisabilitiesBill, 2014 with more Benefit
    • Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights)Bill 2016
    • The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Amendment Act
  5. Welfare Schemes
    • Health                                                       
      • National Health Mission
      • National Ayush Mission
      • Jan Aushadhi Scheme
      • Mission Indradhanush
      • NFHS-4 survey
    • Education
      • Padhe Bharat Badhe Bharat
      • Mid Day Meal Scheme
      • GIAN (Global Initiative ofAcademic Networks)
      • SWAYAM (Study Webs of Active –Learning for Young Aspiring Minds)
    • Start-up and Skill Development
      • Start Up India Scheme
      • Stand up India Scheme
      • National Student Start-up Policy
      • National Skill Development Mission
      • Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana
      • Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana
      • Skill Development Initiative Scheme
      • Self-Employment & Talent Utilisation (SETU)
      • Atal Innovation Mission
    • Vulnerable Sector
      • Social Security
      • Atal Pension Yojana
      • Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana
      • Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana
      • Nai Roshni Scheme
      • USTAAD Scheme (Upgrading the Skills and Training in Traditional Arts/Crafts for Development)
      • Nai Manzil Scheme
      • Women and Child Development
      • Beti Bachao Beti Padhao
      • Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana
      • Digital Gudda Guddi Board
      • Ujjawala Scheme
      • Janani Suraksha Yojana
      • Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakram
      • SC/ST
      • Vanbandhu Kalyan Yojana
      • Pradhan Mantri Adarsh Gram Yojana
      • Disability
      • Accessible India Campaign (Sugamya Bharat Abhiyan)
      • Rural and Urban Development
      • Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana
      • Gram Uday Se Bharat Uday Abhiyan
      • Shyama Prasad Mukharjee Rurban Mission
      • Deendayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana
      • Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana
      • Swachch Bharat Abhiyan
      • Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana- Gramin
      • Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana – Urban
      • Housing for all by 2022
      • Smart Cities Mission
      • Hriday – National Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana
      • Amrut (Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation)
    • Inclusive growth
      • Measurement criteria
      • Government initiatives for inclusive growth
      • Basic Amenities: Housing/Drinking Waters/Sanitations
      • Sustainable Development
    • Rural Development
      • Rural development and poverty alleviation
      • Review of the existing Programmes
      • Development Administration
      • Panchayati Raj
      • Agriculture and Rural Development
    • Miscellaneous schemes
      • Digilocker
      • Bharatnet Project (National Optical Fibre Network)
      • INSPIRE (Innovation in Science Pursuit for Inspired Research)
      • SAKAAR
      • Digital India
      • Namami Gange Project (Integrated Ganga Conservation Mission Project)
      • Ganga Gram Yojana
      • Khelo India
      • PRAGATI (Pro-Active Governance and Timely Implementation)
      • Indian Community Welfare Fund (ICWF)              

UPSC Syllabus- INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

  1. India’s Foreign Policy
    • Evolution of India’s Foreign Policy
    • Post 1990 Scenario
    • Global Issues
  2. South Asia
    • India – Nepal Relations
    • India and Bhutan
    • India-Afghanislam Relations
    • India-Bangladesh Relations
    • India-Maldives Relations
    • India-Sri Lanka Relations
    • India-Myanmar Relations
    • India-Pakistan Relations
    • SAARC
    • NAM (Non-Alignment Movement): Relevance
  3. Central Asia
    • Mongolia
    • Kazakhastan
    • Tukmenistan
    • Uzbekistan
  4. West Asia
    • India – UAE Relations      
    • India IRAN Relations
    • Israel and Palestine Relations
    • India – Israel Relations
    • India – Saudi Arabia
  5. Asia – Pacific
    • Asia-Pacific Region
    • India-South East Asia Relations
    • India-Asean Cooperation
    • Indo-Japan Relations
    • Indo-Australia Relations
    • India – South Korea Relations
    • India-Vietnam
  6. Africa
    • India-South Africa Relations
    • India-Nigeria Relations
    • India-Kenya Relations
    • India-Sudan Relations
  7. Europe
    • India-Russia Relations
    • India-France Relations
    • India-Germany Relations
    • India-United Kingdom Relations
    • India-EU Kingdom Relations
  8. US-China
    • India-USA Relations
    • India-China Relations
  9. Indian Ocean Region
    • Seychelles
    • Mauritius
    • Maldives
  10. Indian Diaspora
    • Indian Diaspora in West
    • Indian Diaspora in Gulf
    • Indian Diaspora in Eastand Middle East

Economy Syllabus for UPSC Prelims

UPSC Syllabus- BASIC CONCEPTS OF ECONOMICS

  1. Macroeconomic Concepts
    • Meaning of Economics                         
    • Types of Economies
    • Sectors of an Economy                         
    • Other Sectors of Economy??
  2. Microeconomic Concepts

UPSC Syllabus- ECONOMIC MEASUREMENTS

  1. National Income Concepts and Methods of Calculation
    • National Income                                     
    • Real National Income                           
    • Calculating National Income  
    • Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF)        
    • National?Organizations?Related to National Income Accounts?
    • Latest India’s National Income Estimates
    • New Series of National Statistics (Base Year 2011-12)
    • Annual Estimates of Expenditures on GDP
    • Per Capita Income
    • Purchasing Power Parity
    • Lorenz Curve                                           
    • Philip’s Curve
    • Gini Coefficient
  2. Inflation
    • Concepts and Types of Inflation
    • Causes of Inflation                                
    • Effects of Inflation                                
    • Measures of Inflation                            
      • WPI, CPI
      • Producer Price Index
      • GDP Deflator
      • Core Inflation
    • Change in Reporting of Inflation        
    • Measures to Check Inflation??
      • Fiscal Measures
      • Administrative Measures
      • Monentary Measures             
  3. Economic Growth and Development
    • Economic Growth                                   
    • Economic Development                        
    • Measurement of Economic Development   
    • Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI)          
    • Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)     
    • Different Levels of Economic Development               
    • Economy and Environment?
    • Environment?Taxes                                
      • Carbon Tax
      • Green Accounting
    • 12th Five Year Plan and Sustainability?

UPSC Syllabus- MONEY AND BANKING

  1. Money Function and Classification
    • Money Concept
    • Measures of Money Supply in India  
    • Indian currency system
    • Broad and Narrow Money
    • Money multiplier
    • Digital Money
    • New Monetary Aggregates
    • Monetary Policy
  2. Financial Market and its Instruments
    • Concept and functions of financial markets
    • Importance of money market
    • Types of capital market
    • Distinguish between capital market and money market
    • Nature and functions of a stock exchange
    • Advantages of stock exchanges
    • Limitations of stock exchanges
    • The stock exchanges in India
    • Insurance Industry – Insurance Industry and Reforms
    • Role of Financial Regulators: SEBI and IRDA
  3. Banking Structure in India
    • Scheduled Commercial Banks             
    • Nationalized?Banks                                
    • Public Sector Banks?
      • State Bank of India               
    • Private Banks                                          
    • Foreign Banks                                         
    • Regional Rural Banks                            
    • Scheduled Co-operative Banks           
    • Reserve Bank of India (RBI)               
    • Methods of Credit Control                    
    • Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR)
    • Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR)
    • Repo Rate
    • Reserve Repo Rate
    • Call Rates
    • Marginal Standing Facility (MSF)
    • Bank Rate
    • Banking Sector Reforms in India
    • Differentiated Banks
      • Payment Banks
      • Small Banks
    • New banking licence
    • White Label ATM
    • Unified Payments Interface
    • Bank Board Bureau
    • Marginal Cost of Funds Based Lending Rate (MCLR)
    • Priority Sector Lending Certificates
    • Concept of Micro ATM
    • Banking Reforms
    • Basel Norms                                            
    • Banking Ombudsman                           
    • Development Financial Institutions    
    • Insurance Companies
    • Recent developments in Economic Sector
      • Government to recapitalize the PSB’s
      • RBI rule and regulation for peer to peer (P2P) lending
      • Domestic Systematically Important Banks (SIBs) of India
      • Financial Inclusion in India
      • The Concept of Bad Bank
      • Alternative Mechanism Panel for PSB consolidation
      • Employee Provident Fund of India
      • Enforcement Department In RBI
      • Gold Monetization Scheme (GMS)
      • Indian Post Payment Bank (IPPB)
      • Indian Gold Coins/Gold Bullion Scheme

UPSC Syllabus- PUBLIC FINANCE IN INDIA

  1. Budgeting
    • Union Budget                                          
    • Plan and Non Plan Expenditure
    • Revenue Receipts
    • Tax Revenue Receipts
    • Non-Tax Revenue Receipts
  2. Fiscal Policy
    • Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) Act, 2003
    • Revenue Deficit, Fiscal Deficit, Primary Deficit
    • Deficit and Surplus Budget
    • Deficit Financing
  3. Centre State Distribution
    • Finance Commission (A280)
  4. Tax Structure in India
    • Tax – Direct Tax, Indirect Tax
    • Methods of Taxation – Progressive, 
      Regressive, Proportional
    • Value Added Tax – VAT in India
    • Goods and Services Tax – GST, GST Council
    • Service Tax
    • DTC – Direct Tax Code

UPSC Syllabus- PLANNING

  1. Meaning Objectives and History
    • Meaning of Economic Planning          
    • Objectives of?Planning                           
    • Strategies of Planning                            
      • Harrod Domar strategy
      • Nehru Mahalonobis strategy
      • Gandhian strategy
      • LPG strategy
    • Regional and National Planning
    • Imperative and Indicative Planning
    • History of Planning in India
    • Visvesvaraya Plan, Gandhian Plan FICCI Proposal, Congress Plan Bombay Plan
    • Planning Commission and National Development Council(NDC)
    • Central Planning – 5 Year Plans, 20 Point Program, MPLADS
    • Decentralized Planning
  2. Planning Institutions
    • Planning Commission                            
    • NITI Aayog                                             
    • National Development Council (NDC)  
  3. Five Year Plans in India
    • 12th Five Year Plan (2012-2017)
    • Alternative Scenarios During 12th Plan
    • Economic?Reforms?

UPSC Syllabus- OPEN ECONOMY

  1. Foreign Trade Concepts
    • Balance of Payments
    • Foreign Capital – FDI, FPI, FII, QFH  
    • Foreign Exchange–Exchange Rate NEER & REER, ETF
    • FERA & FEMA
    • Capital Account Convertibility in India        
    • India’s External Debt                             
    • NRI Deposits                                           
    • Trade Composition                                
  2. Trade Policy and Agreements
    • Import Cover
    • Import/Export Controls
    • Foreign Trade policy 2015-20
    • Export Promotion                                   
    • General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade     
  3. Exchange Rate
    • Exchange Market
    • LERMS
    • NEER
    • REER
    • ETF
  4. International Organization
    • United Nations
    • Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
    • International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
    • International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
    • International Labour Organization (ILO)
    • International Maritime Organization (IMO)
    • International Monetary Fund (IMF)
    • International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
    • United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)           
    • United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)
    • Universal Postal Union (UPU)
    • World Bank Group (WBG)
    • International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)
    • International Finance Corporation (IFC)
    • International Development Association (IDA)
    • World Health Organization (WHO)
    • World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
    • World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
    • World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)
    • World Trade Organization (WTO)
    • Asian Development Bank
    • Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AII)
    • New Development Bank
    • African Development Bank
  5. Trade Agreements
    • RCEP
    • TPP
    • NAFTA
    • MERCOSUR
    • Southern African Development Community (SADC)
    • ASEAN
    • SAFTA
  6. Recent Developments in External Sector
    • Global foreign exchange committee
    • Price capping of medical devices in India
    • Review of the International Investment Agreement (IIA)
    • India signed the OECD multilateral convention to prevent BEPS (Base Erosion and Profit Shifting)
    • Second Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) Bharat 22
    • Double Tax Avoidance Treaty
    • Preferential Trade Agreement with Chile
    • Advance Pricing Agreement
    • National Committee on Trade Facilitation
    • E-tourist Visa
    • India’s Asylum Policy
    • Investor-State Dispute Settlement (ISDS)

UPSC Syllabus- ECONOMIC SECTORS

  1. Poverty
    • Definition and Indices
    • Poverty?in India                                      
    • Human Poverty Index (HPI)
    • Expert Groups for Estimating Poverty          
    • Inequality                                                 
  2. Employment
    • Employment and Unemployment      
    • Poverty?Eradication and Employment Related Related programs
  3. Government Schemes and?Programs
    • New Social Welfare Schemes
    • Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana (PMJJBY)
    • Other Social Protection?Programmes?
    • Rural Infrastructure and Development         
    • Urban Infrastructure, Housing and Sanitation  
    • Education Schemes
    • Financial Inclusion Schemes
    • Health Schemes
    • Women Empowerment?Programmes
    • Other Women Empowerment?Programmes
    • Social?Security
  4. Committees
    • Ratan P Watal Committee on Digital Payment
    • Committee for Market Infrastructure Institution (MII)
    • P. J. Nayak Committee
    • Deepak Mohanty Committee Report on Medium-term Path on Financial Inclusion
    • Narasimham Committee Report on Banking Sector Reforms
    • Uday Kotak Committee on Corporate Governance
    • Nachiket Mor Committee

Science and Technology Syllabus for UPSC Prelims

UPSC Syllabus- SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY IN INDIA

  1. Policy Development of S&T in India
    • Role of S&T in the Developing World
    • S&T Policy in India
      • The S&T Policy Resolution in 1958
      • S&T Policy of the 1983
      • S&T Policy of the 2003
      • S&T Policy 2013
    • Science and technology as a source of Human Resource Development
    • Awards related to Science
    • New Initiatives Aligned with the National Agenda
    • India and World collaboration in science projects
    • Technology Vision Document 2035
    • National Biotechnology Development Strategy 2015-2020
    • National Intellectual Property Rights Policy
    • Organ donation rules in India
    • Policy on Synthetic Biology
  2. Different Organization Institution and Various Department for the S&T
    • List of Various Centre Institutions and Bureaus
    • Ministries and Department for science and Technology
    • Institutional structure
    • Department of Science & Technology
    • CSIR
    • Survey of India
    • Science and Engineering Research Council
    • Technology Development Board
    • National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories

UPSC Syllabus- SPACE

  1. Space Research Programme, Orbits and Launch
    • Space Technology
    • Indian Space research Programme
    • ISRO and ANTRIX
    • Orbits Type
    • Satellite Launching Systems
    • Terminologies Related to the Space Science
  2. Satellites, Launch Vehicles and India Satellite Programmes
    • Earth Observation Systems
    • Satellite Communication in India
    • Remote sensing applications – IRS Sytems
    • INSAT Satellite Application
    • GSAT Satellite Application
    • Launch vehicle Technology
    • GSLV and Various Engine
    • Recent National and International Space Missions
    • Cryogenic rockets
      • Global Positioning System
      • Galileo
      • GLONASS
      • IRNSS
      • GAGAN
    • Chandrayaan – I & II
    • Mars Orbitor Mission
      • Space Organisations
      • Space race/Space junk
    • Recent updates
      • South Asia Satellite: Significance
      • Neutrino Observatory
      • Solar Mission- ADITYA
      • Gravitational Waves
  3. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS
    • Spitzer Space Telescope
    • Chandra X-Ray Observatory
    • Multi Application Solar Telescope
    • Thirty Metre Telescope
    • Resourcesat-2A
    • Astrosat
    • Sunspot
    • Magnetars
    • Neutron stars
    • Air-breathing propulsion system
    • Space Junk
    • Graveyard Orbit
    • Super cluster of galaxies known as “Saraswati”.
    • NASA: Asteroid impact and deflection assessment mission.
    • Commercial use of Lithium-Ion batterytechnology
    • Hyperspectral imaging satellite
    • Water propulsion system in CUBESAT
    • Saturn-cassini Mission
    • OSIRIS-Rex passed by earth to reach asteroid Bennu
    • Hackathon # Open Gov Data Hack
    • Google Lunar X Prize Competition
    • NASA-ISRO synthetic aperture radar satellite (NISAR)
    • GSAT-17 heaviest communication satellite of ISRO
    • Astrosat, Chandra and Hubble Jointly detect massive cosmic explosion
    • Scientists create fi rst global map of water on moon
    • World’s largest aircraft “Strato launch”
    • MOM complete 3 years in orbit
    • Solar mission Aditya L-1 in 2019
    • Gravitational waves news
    • Radio galaxies
    • Indigenously developed S-Band Doppler weather radar
    • Kelvin waves
    • ISRO made satellite based chip system
    • TDRS-M NASA
    • Neutrino Observatory
    • Indian Space Vision-2025
      • ‘NIRBHAY’ sub sonic cruise missile
      • Brahmos
      • INS Koltar
      • INS Kiltan
      • NAG missile
      • Hydrogen bomb
      • Vikram OPV
      • Integrated Quarter Master Package
      • INS Kalvari
      • Prithvi II
      • Air Independent Propulsion
      • Rukmini

UPSC Syllabus- IT & COMMUNICATION

  1. Different Regulatory Bodies in India for ICT
    • Ministry of Communication and information Technology
    • Initiatives in 12th 5 year plan
    • Major Policy Initiatives National Optical Fibre network
    • Spectrum Management
    • Government initiatives
    • Cyber Law
  2. Computer Terminology and Fundamental
    • History of Computers
    • Types of Computer
    • Component of Computer system
      • Computer Languages
      • Generation of computers
    • Computer terminologies
    • Supercomputer and its applications
    • Display technologies
    • Cathode ray
    • LCD
    • LED
    • Plasma Monitors
    • OLED
  3. Mobile Generations and Technology
    • Definition and Impact of ICT on Society
    • Evolution of Telecommunication
    • Media Transmission technology
    • Wireless , Optical Fibres, VSAT SIM IMEI 3G 4 G VolTE Wi Max
    • Mobile generations
      • Smartphone
      • Important concepts
  4. Internet, Types of Network and e- Governance
    • Internet
    • WWW
    • IP
    • URL
    • HTTP
    • Computer Security Tools: firewalls, hackers
    • Global Internet Governance e
    • Internet of things
    • Internet Protocol
    • VPN
    • Networking : Bluetooth , WiFIHotSpot
    • National E Governance Plan
    • Recent Developments
      • Government initiatives
      • Digital India Initiative
      • MeghRaj
      • Code Free for India
      • E-Kranti
      • Bharat Net project
      • Bharat QR
      • Contemporary debates
      • Net Nuetrality
      • Internet of Things
      • Big Data Initiative and Privacy
      • Cyber crime and security
  5. Spectrum Policy, Broad Band Policy
    • Spectrum Policy in India
    • Spectrum
    • Mobile Spectrum
    • Broadband Policy in India
    • Cloud Computing
    • Big Data
    • Encyption
    • Biometrics
    • Virtual Reality
    • Digital India
    • QR Codes
    • Recent Developments in IT & Telecom
      • Quantum computing
      • Project brainwave
      • Sagar Vani System
      • Locky Ransomware, Petya, WannaCry
      • Hindi word for computer i.e., “SANGANAK”
      • India’s first technology and innovation support centre (TISC)
      • Net neutrality
      • National cyber coordination center
      • Hortinet
      • Digital Transaction Methodologies
      • Block chain Technology
      • Bitcoins
      • Cyber Swachhta Kendra
      • Digital Transaction Methodologies
      • Bharat Net Project
      • Wi-Fi Technology
      • Digital Terrestrial Television Transmission System
      • Internet of Things

UPSC Syllabus- MATERIALS, NANO TECHNOLOGY & ROBOTICS

  1. Superconductivity Laser, Artificial Intelligence
    • History Classification and Properties of Superconductors
    • Application of Superconductors
    • Types and Applications of LASERS
    • Artificial Intelligence and Application
    • Advantages and Disadvantages of Artificial Intelligence
  2. Superconductivity Laser, Artificial Intelligence
    • What is Robotics?
    • Robotics Terminologies
    • Laws of Robotics
    • Robotics in India
    • Machine vs Computer vs Robots
    • Parts of a Robot
      • Controller
      • Manipulator
      • End Effector
      • Sensor
    • Classification of Robots
      • Rolling Robots
      • Walking Robots
      • Autonomous Robots
    • Artificial Intelligence
    • Advantages and Disadvantages of Robot
    • Applications of Robotics
      • Industrial Sector
      • Aerospace
      • Healthcare Delivery
      • Outer Space
      • Exploration
      • Military Robots
      • Disaster Areas
      • Entertainment
      • Agriculture
      • Domestic work
  3. Nano Technology
    • What is Nanoscience and Nanotechnology?
    • Origination of Nanoscience and Technology
    • Basics of Nanoscience
    • Nanomaterials
    • Applications of nanotechnology
      • Nano medicine
      • Semiconductors and computing
      • Food
      • Textiles
      • Sustainable energy
      • Environment
      • Transport
      • Space
      • Carbon Nanotube
      • Graphene
      • Quantum Dots
      • Nano Bots
      • Agriculture
    • Adverse Health and Environmental Impacts of Nanotechnology
    • Social and Ethical Impacts:
    • Nano-science and Nano-technology in India

UPSC Syllabus- DEFENCE

  1. Defence Technology
    • Organisations
    • Missile system and classification
      • On the basis of type
      • On the basis of launch vehicle
      • On the basis of Range
      • On the basis of propulsion system
    • Ballistic vs Cruise Missile
    • IGMDP Intergrated Guided Missile Development Programme
      • PrithviTrishul Nag Akash AGNI
      • Shaurya Missile
      • ASTRA Missile
      • Dhanush
      • Prahaar
    • Brahmos Missile System
    • Anti-Ballistic Missile System
    • Frigates Destroyers and Aircraft Carriers
    • AWACS
    • Light Combat Aircraft
      • Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
      • Stealth technology
      • Chemical Weapon
      • Biological Weapon
  2. Submarines
    • Indian Submarines and Naval Ships
    • Commissioned Submarines
    • Project 75
    • INS Astradharini

UPSC Syllabus- NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY

  1. Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Fuels
    • Types of nuclear reactions
      • Nuclear Fusion
      • Nuclear Fission
    • Nuclear Fuel – Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3
  2. Nuclear Programme in India
    • N-Power Policy of India
      • Advantages of Nuclear Energy
      • Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy
    • Institutions involved in Nuclear energy Development, AERB
    • Safety standards in Nuclear Power plants
    • India’s 3 stage Civil Nuclear Programme
    • Nuclear Reactors in India
    • Kudankulam Project
    • Jaitapur Plant
  3. Organisation Institutions
    • Department of Atomic Energy
    • BHABHA
  4. Radioactivity
    • Radiation and Radioactivity
    • Radiation Technologies and Applications
    • Radioactive Waste and Nuclear Waster Management
    • Nuclear & Radiological Disasters

UPSC Syllabus- IPR AND OTHER MISCELLANEOUS ISSUES

  1. IPR Intellectual Property Rights
    • Copyrights
    • Trademarks
    • Patents
    • Industrial Design
    • Trades Secrets
    • IPR and Agriculture

UPSC Syllabus- BIOTECHNOLOGY

  1. Biotechnology in India
    • Department of BT
    • Various Fields of BT
    • R&D
  2. Genetics and Biotechnology
    • Industrial genetics
    • Genetic engineering
    • DNA sequencing
    • Nucleic acid probes
    • Genomics and proteomics
    • Bioprocess/fermentation technology
  3. Biological fuel generation
    • Global warming and the significance of fossils fuels
    • Biofuels from biomass
    • Bioethanol from biomass
    • Biodiesel
    • Methane
    • Hydrogen
  4. Environmental Biotechnology
    • Microbial Ecology Environmental Biotechnology
    • Waste water and sewage treatment
    • Landfilling technologies
    • Composting
    • Bioremediation
    • Detect and monitoring of pollutants
    • Microbes and the geological environment
  5. Plant and Forest biotechnology
    • Plant biotechnology
    • Forest biotechnology
  6. Animal and insect biotechnology
    • Genetic manipulation and transgenic animals
    • Genetically engineered hormone and vaccines
    • Animal organs for human patients
    • Genetically modified insects
  7. Food and Beverage Biotechnology
    • Food and beverage fermentations
      • Microorganisms as food, Enzymes and food processing
      • Amino acids, vitamins and sweeteners
      • Organic acids and polysaccharides
      • Public acceptance and safety of new biotechnology foods
    • Biotechnology and medicine
      • Pharmaceuticals and biopharmaceuticals
      • Antibiotics
      • Vaccines and monoclonal antibodies
      • Biopharmaceuticals/therapeutic proteins
      • Pharmacogenetics
      • Molecular biology and human disease
      • Diagnostics in developing countries
      • Gene therapy
      • Systems biology and medicine
    • Stem cell biotechnology
  8. Protection of biotechnological inventions
    • Patent protection Trade secrets
    • Plant breeders’ rights
  9. Recent Development in Biotechnology
    • Achievements of Biotechnology indifferent fields
    • Genome sequencing of Ragi done for the first time in the world
    • GM mustard policy
    • DNA as storage device
    • Biomarker
    • Algae based footwear
    • Artificial Womb
    • K. grants gene editing license
    • GM Mosquito
    • DBT launched “Sohum” an innovative newborn hearing screening device
    • Biotech-KISAN scheme
    • India’s first biomass to ethanol plant & its commercialization
    • Digital Biopiracy
    • Genetically Modified Mosquito
    • Designer Babies’ or Three Parents Babies
    • National Biotechnology Development Strategy 2015-2020

General Science Syllabus for UPSC Prelims

UPSC Syllabus- BIOLOGY Syllabus for UPSC

  1. Origin of Life and Cells
    • Cell Structure
    • Membranes
    • Cell-Cell Interactions
    • Energy and Metabolism
    • Respiration
    • Cell Division
    • Sexual Reproduction
  2. Genetics
    • Inheritance
    • DNA, The Genetic Material
    • Gene Expression
    • Gene Regulation
    • Mutation
    • Recombinant DNA Technology
  3. Classification of Living Things
    • Classification and Domains of Life
    • General Biology/Classification of Living Things/Viruses
    • Prokaryotes
    • Eukaryotes
      • Protista
      • Plants
      • Fungi
      • Animals
  4. Evolution of Life
    • Evolution of Life
    • Animal Evolution
    • Human Evolution
  5. Tissues
    • Epithelial tissue
    • Connective tissue
    • Muscle tissue
  6. Endocrine System
    • Hypothalamus
    • Pineal body (epiphysis)
    • Pituitary gland (hypophysis)
    • Thyroid
    • Adrenal glands
    • Reproductive glands
  7. Respiratory System
    • External and Internal Respiration
    • Respiratory system in Plants
    • Respiratory System in Insects
    • Respiratory System in Humans and Animals
  8. The Transport System in Organisms
    • Transport system in a Cell
    • Transport System in Plants
    • Transport System in Animals
    • Blood Vascular System
    • The Lymphatic System
  9. Skeletal and Muscular Systems
    • Bone and Skeleton System (Osteology)
    • Ligaments (Syndesmology)
    • Muscular System (Myology)
    • Vertebrates
  10. Reproductive System
    • Asexual Reproduction in Plants
    • Asexual Reproduction in Animals
    • Sexual Reproduction in Plants
    • Sexual Reproduction in Animals
    • Sexual Reproduction in Humans
  11. Excretory System
    • Excretory products
    • Excretion in plants
    • Excretion in Animals
    • Osmoregulation, ADH and formation of Urine in Animals
    • Physiological and Behavioural Adjustments
  12. Nutrition
    • Classification by Source of Energy and Carbon
    • Plant Nutrition
    • Animal Nutrition
    • Human Diet
    • The Digestive System
    • Photosynthesis
  13. Diseases
    • Tuberculosis
    • Non-Communicable diseases
      • Diabetes mellitus
  14. Economic Zoology
      • Beneficial animals: Corals – Earthworm – Vermiculture
      • Beneficial insects – Prawns – Lobsters – Crabs – Pearl oysters – Fishes – Guano – Aquarium – Vivarium.
      • Harmful animals: Disease causing organisms – Vectors – Poisonous organisms – Fouling organisms – Pests.
  15. Recent Development
      • India has declared free from Bird flu
      • Revised Draft guidelines for stem cell research, 2017
      • Therapy for sepsis
      • Curcumin, A bioactive component of turmeric treats cancer
      • Embryo transfer technology to increase livestock productivity
      • “SOHUM’ an indigenously developednewborn hearing screening device
      • Kyasanur forest disease or monkey fever developed
      • India Declared Maternal and NeonatalTetanus, H5N1 and Yaws Free
      • Mission Indradhanush
      • New TB Drug Regimen

After you thoroughly read and understand UPSC Syllabus for both stages ( UPSC Prelims syllabus and UPSC Mains Syllabus) you are advised to go through UPSC Previous year Question paper it will defiantly help you in your preparation

Aspirants are also advised to read UPSC notification

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