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Important Topics for UPSC

PRE HISTORIC TIMES

  • Periodization of Indian Pre History
  • Sources of Pre History
  • Palaeolithic Or Old Stone
  • Mesolithic Or Middle Stone Age
  • Neolithic Age Or New Stone Age
  • Chalcolithic Age
  • Major Chalcolithic Cultures
  • Early Iron Age
  • Geographical Distribution and Characteristics

INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION

  • IVC Geography and Archaeological Findings
    • Major cities
    • Town Planning
  • IVC Society and Culture
    • Script and Language
    • Crafts
    • Religions
    • Seals and Images
  • IVC Economy
    • Harappan Trade
    • Agriculture
    • Domestication of animals
    • Weights and Measures
  • Decline of Harappan Culture

RIG VEDIC PERIOD

  • Sources for Reconstructing Vedic Society and Culture
  • Geography of the Rig Vedic Period – Area of Settlement
  • Political Organisation and Evolution of Monarchy
  • Social Organization
  • Economy
  • Religious Practices and Culture

LATER VEDIC PERIOD

  • Geography of the later Vedic Phases – Area of Settlement
  • Political System
  • Social Organisation and Varna System
  • Economy
  • Religious Practices and Culture

JAINISM

  • Birth and Life of Mahavira (540- 468 B.C.)
  • Teachings of Mahavira
  • Organisation and Sects of Jainism
  • Literature of Jainism
  • Councils, Spread and Royal Patrons

BUDDHISM

  • Birth and Life of Buddha (563-483 BC)
  • Teachings of Buddha
  • Organisation and Sects of Buddhism
  • Literature of Buddhism
  • Councils, Spread of and Royal Patronage
  • Causes for the Decline

MAHAJANAPADAS PERIOD

  • Republics and Monarchies
  • 16 Mahajanapadas
  • Magadha
  • Key Dynasties
    • Haryanka dynasty
    • Shishunaga Dynasty
    • Nanda Dynasty
  • Persian Invasions
  • Alexander’s Invasion
  • Society and Rise of urban centres
  • Economy
  • System of Administration

MAURYAN EMPIRE

  • Sources: Inscriptions and Sites and 
    Literary Sources (The Arthasastra)
  • Rulers and Political History of the Mauryas
    • Chandragupta and Bindusara
    • Megasthenes
    • Asoka and His Successors
  • Asoka’s Inscriptions and Sites
  • Asokan Reign
  • Asoka and Buddhism
  • Asoka Policy of Dhamma
  • Mauryan Administration
  • Foreign Relations
  • Decline of the Mauryas

POST-MAURYAN INDIA

  • Society: Evolution of Jatis
  • Satavahanas
  • Sungas and Kanvas
  • Sakas
  • Kushanas
  • Kanishka

GUPTA PERIOD

  • Sources of Gupta Rule
  • Rulers and Political history of Guptas Chronology
  • Foreign Travellers Visit – Fahien’s Visit
  • Gupta Administration
  • Other Important Dynasties
  • Society Religion and Culture
  • Urban centres in Gupta period
  • Economy
  • Science and Technology
  • Literature
  • Later Guptas
  • Other Important Dynasties

HARSHAVARDHANA PERIOD

  • Harsha Military Conquests
  • Harsha and Buddhism
  • Administration
  • Society and Culture
  • Economy

SANGAM PERIOD (SOUTH INDIAN DYNASTIES)

  • Sangam Literature
  • South Indian Dynasties
    • Cholas
    • Cheras
    • Pandyas
  • Sangam Polity, Society and Culture
  • Economy of Sangam Period
  • Foreign Dynasties                                   
  • Commercial Contacts with the Outside World
  • Schools of Art

MAJOR DYNASTIES (750-1200) OF EARLY MEDIEVAL INDIA

  • The Pratiharas (8th to 10th Century)
  • The Palas (8th to 11th Century)
  • The Tripartite Conflict
  • The Senas (11th to 12th Century)
  • The Rajaputas
  • Pallavas
  • Chalukyas
  • Rashtrakutas
  • Indian Feudalism
  • Administration
  • Society and Culture
  • Economy and the decline of Trade

CHOLAS AND OTHER SOUTH INDIAN KINGDOMS

  • Chola Rulers and Political History
  • Chola Administration
  • Socio-Economic Life
  • Education and Literature
  • The Cheras (9th to 12th Century)
  • The Yadavas (12th to 13th Century)
  • Contact with South-East Asia

EARLY MUSLIM INVASIONS

  • The Arab Conquest of Sindh
  • Mahmud of Ghazni
  • Muhammad Ghori

THE DELHI SULTANATE (1206-1526 AD)

  • Slave Dynasty
  • Khalji Dynasty (1290-1320 AD)
  • Tughlaq Dynasty (1320-1414 AD)
  • Provincial Kingdoms and Resistance 
    by Indian Chiefs
  • Sayyid Dynasty
  • Lodi Dynasty
  • Attacks by Mongolas and other Turks
  • Administration
  • Economy
  • Urbanization
  • Society and Culture
  • Scientific Knowledge and legal System
  • Challenges leading to the decline of the Sultanate

STRUGGLE FOR EMPIRE IN NORTH INDIA (AFGHANS, RAJPUTS AND MUGHALS)

  • Struggle between Ibrahim Lodi and Babur
  • The Battle of Panipat
  • Babur’s problems after the Battle of Panipat
  • Struggle with RanaSanga
  • Problems of the Eastern Areas and the Afghans
  • Babur’s Contribution and Significance of his Advent into India
  • Humayun and the Afghans
  • Early Activities of Humayun, and the Tussle with Bahadur Shah
  • The Gujarat Campaign
  • The Bengal Campaign, and Struggle with Sher Khan

THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE NORTH INDIAN EMPIRE

  • Social and Political Background of Bihar  and the Rise of Sher Shah to Power
  • The Sur Empire (1540-56)
  • Contributions of Sher Shah
  • Coinage
  • Architecture

CONSOLIDATION AND EXPANSION OF THE EMPIRE – AKBAR

  • Conflict with the Afghans – Hemu
    • 2nd Battle of Panipat
  • Struggle with the Nobility: Bairam Khan’s Regency; Revolt of Uzbek Nobles
  • Early Expansion of the Empire (1560-76) – Malwa, Garh-Katanga, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Eastern India
  • Relations with the Rajputs – Growth of a Composite Ruling Class
  • Rebellions, and Further Expansion of the Empire in the North West

STATE AND GOVERNMENT UNDER AKBAR

  • Akbar’s Concept of Suzerainty
  • Structure of Government, Central and 
    Provincial -the Vikalat, the Central Ministries, Provincial
  • Government, District and Local Government
  • The Working of Government – the Ruler, Land-Revenue System, the Dahsala System, the Mansabdari System and the Army

AKBAR’S RELIGIOUS VIEWS

  • Relations with the Ulama and Social Reforms
  • The Early Phase (1556-73)
  • The Second Phase (1573-80) – the Ibadat Khana
  • Debates – the Mahzar – Breach with Orthodox
  • Ulama – Re-organisation of Madadd-i-Maash Grants
  • Third or Final Phase – Din-i-Ilahi – State
  • Policies and religious toleration

THE DECCAN AND THE MUGHALS (UP TO 1657)

  • The Deccani States up to 1595
  • Mughal Advance towards the Deccan
  • Mughal Conquest of Berar, Khandesh and Parts of Ahmadnagar
  • Rise of Malik Ambar Mughal Attempt at Consolidation (1601-27)
  • Extinction of Ahmadnagar,Acceptance of Mughal
  • Suzerainty by Bijapur and Golconda
  • Shah Jahan and the Deccan (1636-57)
  • Cultural Contribution of the Deccani States

FOREIGN POLICY OF THE MUGHALS

  • Akbar and the Uzbeks
  • The Question of Qandahar and Relations with Iran
  • Shah Jahan’s Balkh Campaign
  • Mughal – Persian Relations – the Last Phase

INDIA IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY

  • Jahangir’s Accession – his Early Difficulties
  • Territorial Consolidation and Expansion of the Empire – Mewar, East India and Kangra
  • NurJahan, and the NurJahan ‘Junta’ The Rebellions of Shah Jahan, 
    and the coup de main of Mahabat Khan
  • Jahangir as a Ruler
  • State and Religion in the First Half of the Seventeenth Century
  • Shah Jahan – Consolidation and Expansion of the Empire
  • Evolution of the Mughal Ruling Class and the Mansabdari System

CLIMAX AND CRISIS OF THE MUGHAL EMPIRE: THE MARATHAS AND THE DECCAN

  • Rise of the Marathas – Early Career of Shivaji
  • Treaty of Purandar – the Agra Visit
  • Aurangzeb and the Deccani States (1658-87)
  • Marathas and the Decean (1687-1707)
  • Assessment of Aurangzeb and the Jagirdari Crisis

THE MARATHA AND OTHER INDIAN STATES AND SOCIETY IN THE 18TH CENTURY

  • The Marathas and their Policy of Expansion
  • The Marathas and Nizam-ul-Mulk
  • The Maratha Advance into Gujarat and Malwa
  • The Maratha Advance into Doab and Punjab:
  • First Phase (1741-52); Second Phase (1752-61);
  • Third Battle of Panipat
  • Shivaji (1627-1680)
  • Shivaji’s administration
  • Successors of Shivaji
  • The Peshwas (1713-1818)
  • Other Indian States ( The Bhonsles The Gaikwads Holkars Sindhias)
  • Economic Condition in 18th Century
  • Social and Cultural Life

VIJAYANAGAR EMPIRE

  • Sources
  • Political History
  • Administration
  • Social and Cultural Life
  • Economic Condition
  • Conflicts with the Bahmani Kingdom

REGIONAL STATES IN THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD

  • Regional States of North and South India (Bahmani, Bengal, Avadh, The Sikhs, Rajput States Jats Hyderabad Mysore)
  • Social and Cultural Conditions
  • Economic Conditions
  • Military Conditions

NORTHERN INDIA IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY

  • Bahadur Shah I, and the Beginning of the Struggle For Wizarat
  • Rajput Affairs
  • Marathas and the Deccan – Accentuation of the Party Struggle
  • Struggle for ‘New’ Wizarat: Zulfiqar Khan and Jahandar Shah (1712-13)
  • The Saiyid Brothers’ Struggle for ‘New’ Wizarat
  • The Saiyid ‘New’ Wizarat
  • The Wizarat of M. Amin Khan and Nizam-ul-Mulk
  • Rise of Regional States, Beginning of Foreign Invasions of India (1725-48)

SOCIETY-STRUCTURE AND GROWTH

  • Rural Society
  • Towns and Town Life
  • Artisans and Master-Craftsmen
  • Women
  • Servants and Slaves
  • Standard of Living
  • The Ruling Classes – Nobility, Rural Gentry
  • The Middle Strata
  • The Commercial Classes

ECONOMIC LIFE-PATTERNS AND PROSPECTS

  • Inland Trade
  • Overseas Trade – Role of Foreign Trading
  • Companies – Position of Indian Merchants Over-land Trade
  • The Mughal State and Commerce
  • Trend of India’s Economy and Prospects during the First Half of the Eighteenth Century

THE ADVENT OF EUROPEANS IN INDIA

  • The Portuguese in India
  • De Almeida
  • Albuquerque
  • Causes of failure of Portuguese empire in India
  • The Dutch in India
  • The Danes in India
  • The English
  • The French
  • Anglo-French Rivalry
  • First Carnatic War
  • Rise of the Hyderahad State
  • The Second Carnatic War
  • The Third Carnatic War
  • Causes of English Succes

BRITISH EXPANSION IN INDIA

  • Bengal
  • Anglo Maratha Wars
  • The Subsidiary Alliance System
  • Second Phase of British 
    Expansion In India                                 
  • The Conquest of Sindh
  • Anglo-Sikh Wars
  • Doctrine of Lapse
  • Annexation of Oudh

ADMINISTRATION BEFORE 1857

  • The Dual System
  • The Charter Acts
  • Judicial System
  • Impact of British Administration

ECONOMIC POLICIES OF THE BRITISH

  • Phase of Mercantilism (1757-1813)
  • Phase of Free Trade (1813-1858)
  • Phase of Finance Imperialism (1858 onwards)
  • Land Revenue Policy                             
    • Ryotwari                                   
    • Mahalwari
    • Permanent Settlement
  • Impact of British Policy on Indian Economy
  • Drain of Wealth Theory

IMPACT OF BRITISH ADMINISTRATION

  • Industrialization—Ruin of Artisans and Handicrafts men
  • Impoverishment of Peasantry
  • Emergence of New Land Relations, Ruin of Old Zamindars
  • Stagnation and Deterioration of Agriculture
  • Commercialization of Indian Agriculture
  • Development of Modern Industry
  • Rise of Indian Bourgeoisie
  • Economic Drain
  • Famine and Poverty
  • Nationalist Critique of Colonial Economy
  • Abolition of the Dual System

THE REVOLT OF 1857

  • Causes of the Revolt
    • Economic Causes
    • Political Causes
    • Administrative Causes
    • Socio -Religious Causes
    • Influence of Outside Events
    • Discontent Among Sepoy’s
  • Centres and Spread of the Revolt
  • Leaders of the Revolt
  • Causes of Failure of the Revolt
  • Nature and Impact of the Revolt
  • Consequences

ADMINISTRATIVE CHANGES AFTER 1857

  • Administration – Central, Provincial, Local
  • Changes in the Army
  • Public Services
  • Princely States
  • Foreign Policy

DEVELOPMENT OF CIVIL SERVICES

  • Indian Civili Services Act, 1861
  • Aitcision Comminittee on Public Services (1886)
  • Montford Reforms (1919)
  • Lee Commission (1924)
  • Government of India Act, 1935

DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION

  • Charter Act of 1813
  • Orientalist-Anglicism Controversy
  • Efforts of Thomson
  • Wood’s Dispatch (1854) Hunter Education Commission (1882-83)
  • Indian Universities Act, 1904
  • Government Resolution on Education Policy—1913
  • Saddler University Commission (1917-19)
  • Education Under Dyarchy
  • Hartog Committee (1929)
  • Wardha Scheme of Basic Education (1937)
  • Sergeant Plan of Education
  • Kothari Education Commission (1964-66)
  • Development of Vernacular Education
  • Development of Technical Education
  • Evaluation of British Policy on Education

DEVELOPMENT OF PRESS

  • Different Publications and Journals
  • Acts related to Press
    • Vernacular Press Act, 1878
  • Struggle by Early Nationalists to 
    Secure Press Freedom ,
  • During and After the First World War
  • During the Second World War
  • After Independence

SOCIO-RELIGIOUS REFORMS

  • Factors causing Reforms
  • Directions of refroms
  • Hindu Reform Movements
  • Reform Movements Among Muslims
  • Sikh Reform Movement
  • Parsi Reform Movement
    • Parsi Religious Reform Association               
  • Significance of Reform Movements
  • Impact of Reform Movements

PERSONALITIES

  • Raja Ram Mohan Roy
  • Swami Vivekananda
  • Swami DayanandaSaraswati
  • Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
  • Keshab Chandra Sen
  • Sri Ramakrishna Paramhamsa
  • Mahadev Govind Ranade
  • Annie Besant–Theosophical Society  
  • Syed Ahmad Khan
  • Baba Dayal Das                                     
  • Pandita Ramabai Sarojini Naidu
  • Jyotiba Phule
  • Dr.Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar

PEASANT, TRIBAL AND OTHER MOVEMENTS

  • Tribal Movements
    • Bhil Uprising
    • Kol Uprising
    • Santhal Rebellion
    • Jaintia and Garo Rebellion
    • Rampa Rebellion
    • Munda Rebellion
    • Khonda Dora Uprisings
    • Tana Bhagat Movement
  • Peasant Movements
    • Champaran Satyagraha
    • Kheda Peasant Struggle
    • Bardoli Movement
    • Moplah Rebellion
    • Tebhaga Movement
    • Telangana Movement

REVOLUTIONARY NATIONALISM

  • Early Phase Indian National Congress
  • The Moderate Congress (1885-1905)
  • Opinion Against Economic Exploitation Administrative Reforms Constitutional Reforms : Weaknesses & Evaluation
  • The Extremist (1905-1920)
    • Terrorist Movements
    • The Revolutionary Movement
    • Reasons for Failure
    • Revolutionary Activities in Maharashtra
    • Revolutionary Activities in Bengal
    • Revival of Revolutionary Nationalism
    • Surya Sen
    • Revolutionary Activities Outside India
    • The Indian Independence Committee in Berlin
  • Differences between the Moderates and the Extremists

INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT – I (1905-1918)

  • Partition of Bengal (1905)
  • Swadeshi Movement
  • Muslim League, 1906
  • Surat Session of INC, 1907
  • Indian Council Act (Morley-Minto Act) 1909
  • Ghadar Party, 1913
  • Komagata Maru Incident 1914
  • The Lucknow Pact (1916)
  • Home Rule Movement (1915–1916)
  • August Declaration, 1917

INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT –II (1918-1929)

  • World War I-Reforms and Agitation
  • Champaran Satyagraha (1917)
  • Ahmadabad Mill Strike (1918)
  • Kheda Satyagraha (1918)
  • The Government of India Act, 1919
  • Rowlatt Act and Jallianwala Bagh 
    Massacre (1919)
  • Khilafat Movement
  • The Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-22)
  • Bardoli Resolution
  • Nagpur Session of Congress
  • Swaraj Party and its Evaluation
  • Muddiman Committee (1924)
  • Simon Commission (1927)
  • Bardoli Satyagraha (1928)
  • Nehru Report (1928)
  • Jinnah’s Fourteen Points
  • Lahore Session, 1929
  • Allahabad Address (1930)

INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT – III (1930-1947)

  • Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-1931)
  • First Round Table Conference, 1930
  • Gandhi-Irwin Pact, 1931
  • Karachi session of 1931
  • Second Round Table Conference, 1931
  • Civil Disobedience Movement (Second-Phase)
  • Third Round Table Conference (17 November 1932)
  • Communal Award
  • Poona Pact, 1932
  • Government of India Act, 1935
  • World War II and Indian Nationalism
  • Resignation of Congress Ministers (1939)
  • Poona Resolution and Conditional Support to Britain (1941)
  • August Offer of 1940
  • The Individual Civil Disobedience
  • Two-Nation Theory
  • Demand for Pakistan (1942)
  • Cripps Mission (1942)
  • Quit India Movement
  • Azad Hind Fauj
  • Indian National Army
  • N.A. Trials
  • I.N. Rebellion
  • Rajagopalachari Formula, 1945
  • Desai – Liaqat Pact
  • Cabinet Mission (1946)
  • Wavell Plan
  • Jinnah’s Direct Action Resolution
  • Mountbatten Plan of June 1947
  • Indian Independence Act 1947

GOVERNOR GENERALS DURING BRITISH INDIA

  • Governor of Bengal (Before 1773)
  • Governor Generals of Bengal (1773-1833)
  • Governor Generals of India (1832-1858)
  • Viceroy and Governor Generals of India (1858-1947)

LIST

  • Robert Clive (1754-1767)
  • Lord Warren Hastings (1773-1785)
  • Lord Cornwallis (1786-1793)
  • Sir John Shore (1793-1798)
  • Lord Arthur Wellesley (1798-1805)
  • Lord George Barlow (1805-1807)
  • Lord Minto-I (1807-1813)
  • Francis Rawdon Hastings (1813-1823): (Marques of Hastings)       
  • Lord Amherst (1823-28)
  • Lord William Bentinck (1828-1835)
  • Sir Charles Metcalfe (1835-1836)
  • Lord Auckland (1836-1842)
  • Lord Ellenborough (1842-1844)
  • Lord Hardinge-I (1844-1848)
  • Lord Dalhousie (1848-1856 great imperialist and colonist)
  • Lord Canning (1856-1857 and 1858-1862)
  • Lord Elgin-I (1862-1863)
  • Lord Lawrence (1864-1869)
  • Lord Mayo (1869-1872)
  • Lord Northbrook (1872-1876)
  • Lord Lytton (1876-1880)
  • Lord Rippon (1880-1884)
  • Lord Dufferin (1884-1888)
  • Lord Lansdowne (1888-1894)
  • Lord Elgin-II (1894-1999)
  • Lord Curzon (1899-1905)
  • Lord Minto-II (1905-1910)
  • Lord Hardinge-II (1910-1916)
  • Lord Chelmsford (1916-1921)
  • Lord Reading (1921-1926)
  • Lord Irwin (1926-1931)
  • Lord Willingdon (1931-1936)
  • Lord Linlithgow (1936-1944)
  • Lord Wavell (1944-1947)
  • Lord Mountbatten (1947-1948)

CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA

  • Regulating Act 1773
  • Pitts India Act of 1784
  • Charter Act of 1793
  • Charter Act of 1813
  • Charter Act of 1833
  • Charter Act of 1853
  • Government of India Act 1858
  • The Indian Councils Act 1861
  • Indian Councils Act 1892
  • Indian Councils Act 1909 or Morley – Minto Reforms Government of India Act 1919 or Montague – Chelmsford Reforms
  • Government of India Act 1935
  • Indian Independence Act, 1947

CHALLENGES BEFORE INDIA AFTER INDEPENDENCE

  • Communal Riots and Regions most affected
  • Partition and then Independence: Punjab, Bengal and Assam, Sindh
  • Radcliff Commission and challenges before boundary commission
  • Radcliff Commission and its composition
  • Drawbacks of Commission
  • Division of sources
  • Finances
  • Defence personnel and equipment
  • Civil government
  • Assassination of Gandhi
  • Resettlement and Rehabilitation of Refugees
  • Shift to Constitutional Democracy

THE INDIAN STATES

  • Policy of Equal Federation (1935-1947)
  • Plan of consolidation
  • Integration of Princely States: Junagadh, Kashmir and Hyderabad
  • Aftermath of Integration
  • Goa and Pondicherry
  • Tribal Integration
  • Roots of India Tribal Policy
  • Reasons for dismal performance of Tribal Policy
  • Positive Development happened due to state’s Initiative since 1947
  • Issue of language
  • The Official Language
  • Features of Official Language Act

FRAMING OF THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

  • Evolution of the Constitution and main provisions
  • Steps to the Constitution
  • Constitutional Developments
  • The Indian Constitution: Main Provisions
  • The Constituent Assembly
  • Formation of the Constituent Assembly
  • Compulsions and Issues in front of Assembly

FROM COLONY TO DEMOCRACY

  • Challenge of building democracy
  • Challenges before ECI and conduction of first general election
  • Starting of one party dominance
  • Dominance of Congress System
  • Nature of Congress Dominance
  • 1967 elections
  • Split in the Congress
  • Emergence of Opposition Parties
  • Role of opposition parties
  • Various opposition parties

ECONOMIC CONSOLIDATION

  • Economic Development and Planning
  • Ideas of Development
  • Planning
  • Formation of Planning Commission
  • First five year plan
  • Second five year plan
  • Achievements of Plans from 1947 to 1965
  • Key controversies regarding 5 year plans
  • Green Revolution
  • Prevailing Conditions before the introduction of Green Revolution
  • Initiatives prior to Green Revolution to boost Agriculture
  • Government’s other positive initiative during Green Revolution Period
  • Positive and negative impact of Green Revolution
  • Operation Flood and Cooperatives
  • Formation of Amul
  • Starting and impact of Operation Flood
  • Limitations of Co-operativization
  • Development of land reforms in India between 1947 and early 1960’s
  • Abolition of intermediaries
  • Tenancy reforms
  • Ceiling on land holdings
  • Bhoodan Movement
  • Aims and advantages of Bhoodan movement

INDIA’S EXTERNAL RELATIONS

  • Evolution of India’s Foreign Policy
  • Strategic Issues
  • Features of Indian Foreign Policy
  • Emergence of NAM and its Summits
  • Organizational structure & membership
  • India and its neighbours
  • India and China
  • India and Pakistan (Indo-Pak War, Kargil War, Shimla Agreement, Tashkent Declaration and Agra Summit)
  • India and Bangladesh (Creation of Bangladesh)
  • India and Sri Lanka
  • India with Nepal and Bhutan
  • India’s relations with USA and USSR during cold war
  • Analysis of Nehruvian Foreign Policy

THE CRISIS OF DEMOCRATIC ORDER

  • The JP movement and Emergency 1975-77: Testing of Indian democracy tested
  • Background to emergency (Economic context, Gujarat and Bihar movements, Conflict with Judiciary)                                                   
  • Declaration of emergency (Crisis and Response)
  • Controversies regarding emergency
  • Lessons from emergency
  • Politics after Emergency (LS elections 1977 and Janata Party)
  • The Opposition: Initial years of BJP
  • The Naxalite Movement
  • Communalism
  • Secularism and democracy
  • Ayodhya dispute: Demolition and after
  • Communalism and use of state power
  • Revival and growth of communalism
  • Anti-muslim riots in Gujarat
  • The Punjab Crisis
  • Operation Blue Star
  • Demand of Khalistan
  • Basis of Regionalism: Politics in the states
  • Roots of tension
  • Challenges of Regionalism
  • Tamil Nadu (Dravidian Movement), Andhra Pradesh, Assam, West Bengal and J&K (external and internal disputes)                                                    
  • Secessionist movement in North-Eastern states
  • Accommodation and National Integration

POPULAR MOVEMENTS

  • Nature of Popular Movements
  • Environment Movements
  • Chipko Movement
  • Narmada Bachao Andalon (Sardar Sarovar Project, Debates and struggles)
  • Party based Movement and Non-party based movements
  • Caste, Untouchability, Anti-caste politics and strategies      
  • Issues of Dalit
  • Dalit panthers: Origin and their activities
  • Agrarian Struggles
  • Bharatiya Kisan Union: Growth and its characteristics
  • National Fish Worker’s Forum
  • Anti-Arrack Movement: Origin and its linkage
  • Indian Women since Independence
  • Lesson from popular movements

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN INDIAN POLITICS

  • Context of the 1990s
  • Era of Coalition
  • Decline of Congress
  • Alliance politics
  • Political Rise of other Backward Classes
  • Mandal Implemented: The Mandal Commission
  • Political fallouts
  • NEP-1991, LPG policy, Tax reforms, Privatisation, Globalisation and ICT
  • Nuclear policy
  • Emergence of new consensus
  • LS Elections 2004
  • Terrorist troubles and relations with Pakistan

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

  • Decline of feudalism
  • Beginning of Renaissance
  • Pre-industrial Europe
  • Factors that led to industrial revolution and its Impact

FRENCH REVOLUTION

  • Causes of the revolution in France
  • France under Napoleon
  • Impact and Significance of revolution

NATIONALISM IN EUROPE

  • Rise of the nation- state system
  • Unification of Italy and Germany

COLONIALISM AND IMPERIALISM

  • Colonialism and its Analysis
  • The age of Imperialism (1870-1914)
  • Imperialism in Asia

EMERGENCE OF USA

  • Foundation of American Colonies
  • The Independence of USA
  • The American Revolutionary War and its impact
  • Political Effects of the Revolution
  • How did the American Revolution influence the French Revolution?

WORLD WAR-I

  • Causes and Course of the war             
  • Consequences of World War I
  • Aftermath of World War I
  • League of Nations

RUSSIAN REVOLUTION

  • Major events in pre-revolution Russia
  • Causes and Course of revolution
  • Consequences and Aftermath of the war
  • Post-Lenin Russia

INTER-WAR YEARS (1919 TO 1939)

  • The Great Depression- an economic perspective
  • Rise of Fascism in Italy & Nazism in Germany
  • Soviet Union (USSR)

WORLD WAR- II

  • Causes &Course of the war
  • Aftermath &Analysis of the war
  • Decolonization Phase

DEVELOPMENT IN MIDDLE EAST

  • Democratic reforms in Middle East
  • Arab nationalism
  • Israel and Palestine

COLD WAR ERA

  • Impact in India
  • Indian Policy

POST COLD-WAR WORLD

  • Global issues since 1991
  • Integration of Europe
  • Rise of global Islamic terrorism
  • Rise of China

COMMUNISM, SOCIALISM AND CAPITALISM

  • Capitalism (concept, types and example)
  • Communism (concept, types, example)
  • Relevance of capitalism in present era

CULTURE AND HERITAGE OF INDIA

  • Aims and objectives of performing arts and their development through various stages.
  • Utility of performing arts during the ancient and the medieval period.
  • Appreciate the contribution of classical dances, folk music as well as folk dances in Indian culture and Challenges faced by performing Arts  
  • Development of drama through various phases in India and recognize the contribution of folk theatre
  • Examine the importance of the three art forms in the development of human personality.   
  • Religious and secular Art in India

MUSIC

  • Evolution of Indian Music
  • Contribution of Some personalities : Amir Khusro, Mohammad Shah
  • Hindustani Music evolution, features and impact  
  • Carnatic Music evolution, features and impact
  • Hindustani and Carnatic music differences and similarities
  • Regional music and its impact
  • Modern Music

DANCE

  • Tracing Evolution of Dance (Rig Veda, Harappa, Nataraja)
  • Classical Dances of India, their evolution and Theme
  • Well known Classical dancers of India.
  • Themes in Indian folk dances

DRAMA

  • Introduction ( Natyashastra)
  • Evolution of Drama in India
  • Various texts relating to Drama period wise (ex Mahabhasya, mrichhakatika)
  • Famous Modern Dramas and Dramatists.

LANGUAGES & LITERATURE

  • Vedic Literature
  • Tamil language and Sangam Literature
  • Classical languages : Evolution & impact on society
  • Trends in Medieval Literature
  • Modern Indian Literature

ARCHITECTURE IN INDIA

  • Architectural Style of Harappan Civilisation
  • Influence of Buddhism and Jainism on Indian architecture
    • Stupas, Chaityas and Viharas
  • Impact of Persian and Greek invasion on Indian culture
  • Mauryan Architecture (322-182 BC)
  • Post Mauryan Architecture
  • Gandhara and Mathura school of Art
  • Cultural development during Gupta Age
  • Temple Architecture and Sculptures
    • Nagara and Dravida Styles
    • Early Temples
    • Rock Cut temples
    • Monolithic Temples
    • Free Standing Temples
  • Pallavas as great temple builders
  • Emergence of Nalanda as centre of learning
  • Medieval Period architecture
    • Delhi Sultanate
    • Regional Kingdoms ( Mandu, Jaunpuretc)
    • Vijaynagara Architecture
    • Mughal Architecture
  • Indo Islamic Architecture
  • Colonial Architecture
  • Utility of Architectural structures today and in Past
  • Conservation and Preservation of Architectural Structures
  • Spread of Indian Culture to Southeast Asia

BRONZE SCULPTURES IN INDIA

  • Harappan “Dancing Girl”
  • Jain Tirthankaras Bronze Images
  • Buddha bronze Images (ex Guptas and Vakatakas)
  • Pala school of Art (Bronze images, Manuscripts)
  • Pallava Bronze Images
  • Chola Bronzes
  • Nataraja

PAINTINGS IN INDIA

  • Prehistoric Rock Paintings
  • Ancient Period
    • Murals Paintings
    • Bagh Caves
    • Sittanavasal Paintings
    • Armamalai caves
  • Medieval Period
    • Pala school of miniature paintings
    • Mughal miniature paintings (synthesis           of Indian and Persian style)
    • Role of Akbar and his successors
    • Development of Pahari, Rajput and Deccan Paintings
    • Theme of paintings in Medieval period
  • Modern Period
    • Bengal school of Art
    • Renaissance or revivalist painting
    • Madras School of Art
  • Decorative Art
    • Madhubani
    • Kalamkari
    • Kalighat
    • Warli
    • Pattachitra
    • Theme of decorative paintings in India
  • Theatre Forms of India
    • Significance of Traditional folk theatre in India
    • Different forms of traditional folk  theatre in India
    • Sanskrit theatre in India
    • Challenges faced by theatre in India
  • Puppet forms in India
    • Themes of puppetry in India
    • Forms of Puppetry
  • Religious Philosophies
    • Buddhism and its impact
    • Jainism and its impact
    • Sufism and its impact
    • Vedanta Philosophy
  • Bhakti Traditions

POLITY

  • Reorganisation of States
  • Emergency in India                                
  • Linguistic Regionalism in India.
  • Lok Sabha Elections 2014 and 2018.

ECONOMY

  • Agriculture since 12th five year plan  
  • Industry since 12th five year plan        
  • New Economic Policies and its Impact

SOCIAL ISSUES RELATED TO VULNERABLE SECTION

  • Tribal Issue and Policy Consolidation
  • Issue of Women and Evolution of Women Movement 
  • Agrarian Struggles                                   
  • Problem of Caste and Social Consolidation
  • Communalism Secularism and Social Consolidation
  • Regionalism Issues in India
  • Issue of Linguistic Minorities
  • Environmental Movements

GENERAL GEOGRAPHY

  • Universe
    • Theories of evolution of Universe
    • Star Formation
    • Formation of planets
  • Earth Evolution& Basics
    • Evolution of Earth
    • Evolution of Atmosphere
    • Evolution of Hydrosphere
    • Earth’s Geological time scale
    • Origin of life
    • The Earth’s Movements-Revolution and Rotation and Seasons
    • Inclination of the Earth’s Axis and its ffects

GEOMORPHOLOGY

  • Earth’s Interior
    • Sources of Information about the Interior (Direct Sources, Indirect Sources – Earth Quake Wave, Volcanoes)                                
    • Structure of the Earth’s Interior
    • Mechanical and Chemical categorization of internal structure
  • Geology and Rock System
    • Minerals
    • Major Elements of the Earth’s Crust
      • Physical Characteristics
      • Classification –
    • Rocks ( Aggregate of Minerals )
      • Classification
      • Igneous
      • Sedimentary
      • Metamorphic
    • Rocks & landforms
    • Rocks & Soils
  • Geomorphic Processes
    • Endogenic Forces
      • Diastrophism
      • Orogenic
      • Epierogenic
      • Earthquakes
      • Plate movements
      • Volcanism
    • Exogenic Forces
      • Denudation Processes
      • Weathering & its Significance
      • Mass movements & their impact
      • Erosion Transportation & Deposition
  • Earthquakes and Volcanism
    • Earthquakes: Reasons, Distribution & impact
    • Volcanism
      • Types and distribution of Volcanoes
      • Volcanic Landforms (intrusive)
  • Distribution of Continents & Oceans
    • Theories
      • Continental Drift Theory
      • Convectional Current Theory
      • Mapping of the Ocean Floor
      • Sea Floor Spreading
      • Plate Tectonics
    • Isostasy
  • Landforms and their evolution
    • Causesof landform development
      • Geomorphic Processes
      • Geomorphic Agents
    • Geomorphic Agents and Landforms
      • Running Water
      • Development of a river System
      • Erosional Landforms
      • Depositional Landforms
    • Ground Water (Karst Topography)
      • Erosional Landforms
      • Depositional landforms
    • Glaciers
      • Erosional Landforms
      • Depositional Landforms
    • Waves and Currents
    • Winds
      • Erosional Landforms
      • Depositional Landforms
    • Landforms across the world
      • Rivers and lakes
      • Mountain and Peaks
      • Plateaus

OCEANOGRAPHY

  • Hydrosphere
    • Water on the Surface of the Earth
    • Hydrological Cycle
  • Submarine Relief Features
    • Relief of the Ocean floor
    • Divisions of the ocean floor
    • Minor relief features
  • Temperature and Salinity
    • Temperature of the Ocean Water
    • Factors affecting Temperature distribution
    • Horizontal and Vertical Distribution
  • Salinity of the Ocean Water
    • Factors affecting salinity
    • Horizontals distribution of salinity
    • Vertical Distribution of salinity
  • Density of Ocean Waters
  • Movements of Ocean Water
  • Factors influencing Movement
  • Waves
    • Motion of waves
    • Characteristics of wave
  • Tides
    • Types of Tides
    • Importance of Tides
  • Ocean Currents
    • Characteristics of Ocean Currents
    • Types of ocean currents:
    • Major Ocean currents of the World
    • Effects of Ocean Currents
  • Marine Resources
    • Surface water resources
    • Ground water resources
    • Inland water resources
    • Oceanic Water Resources (Marine Resource)
    • Utilization of oceans by man
    • Water consumption patterns
    • Water Conservation and Management (Techniques)
  • Ocean Deposits and Corals
    • Terrigenous Deposits
    • Volcanic Deposits
    • Biotic deposits
    • Abiotic Deposits
    • Coral Reefs
      • Probable origin of Coral Reef
      • Types and significance of Coral Reef
      • Issue of Coral Bleaching

CLIMATOLOGY

  • Atmosphere
    • Composition of the Atmosphere
    • Structure of the Atmosphere
  • Solar Radiation, Heat Balance and Temperature
    • Solar Radiation and Isolation
    • Heating and cooling of atmosphere
    • Terrestrial Radiation
    • Heat Budget of the Planet Earth
    • Temperature
    • Factors Controlling Temperature Distribution
    • Distribution of Temperature
  • Atmospheric Circulation and Weather Systems
    • Atmospheric Pressure
    • Vertical variation of pressure
    • Horizontal distribution of pressure
    • World Distribution of Sea Level Pressure
    • Factors affecting the velocity and direction of the Wind
    • General Circulation of the Atmosphere – Pattern of Planetary Winds
    • Latitudinal Variation of Atmospheric 
      Heating
    • Emergence of Pressure Belts
    • Hadley Cell , Ferrel Cell, Polar Cell
    • Seasonal Wind
    • Local Wind
    • Land and Sea Breezes
    • Mountain and Valley Winds
    • Air Mass, Fronts, Cyclones and Jet Stream
      • Air mass & fronts
      • Cyclones
      • Thunderstorms
      • Tornadoes
  • Water in the Atmosphere
    • Water Vapour
    • Humidity – Absolute and Relative
    • Saturation – Dew Point
    • Evaporation and Condensation
      • Dew
      • Frost
      • Fog & Mist
      • Clouds
    • Precipitation
      • Rainfall
      • Snowfall
      • Sleet Hail
      • Hailstones
      • Types of Rainfall
      • World Distribution of Rainfall
  • Climatic Zones of the World
    • World Climate
    • Koeppen’s Scheme of Classification of Climate            
    • Climatic Zones of World

BIO-GEOGRAPHY

  • Soil & Its Characteristics
    • Soil Characteristics
    • Factors Responsible for Soil Formation
    • Process of Soil Formation
    • Soil Profiles and Horizons
    • Classification of Soil
    • Soil Degradation, Erosion and Conservation
  • Vegetation resources
    • Types of natural vegetation
    • Forests
      • Significance of forests
      • Factors of forest development
      • Classification of forests
      • forest cover
    • Grasslands
    • Desert vegetation
    • Tundra Vegetation
    • Deforestation
    • Conservation of forests
    • Reforestation
    • Afforestation
    • Forestry
      • Social forestry
      • Agro-forestry
      • Farm Forestry
      • Community Forestry

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF INDIA

  • Physiography of India
    • Location
    • Geopolitical Significance of India
    • Geological Divisions
      • The Peninsular Block
      • The Himalayas and other Peninsular Mountains
      • Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain
      • Physiographic Divisions
  • Drainage System
    • Drainage Patterns
    • Drainage System of India
    • Himalayan Drainage System
      • River Systems of Himalayan Drainage
      • Indus river system
      • Ganga River System
      • Brahmaputra river system
    • Peninsular Drainage System
      • River Systems of Peninsular Drainage
      • Small Rivers Flowing Towards East and West
  • Climate
    • Factors influencing the climate of India
    • Monsoon
    • Mechanism of the Monsoon
      • Classical Theory
      • Modern theory
      • Air mass theory
      • Jet stream theory
    • ELNINO and LANINA & their impact
    • The rhythm of Seasons        
      • The cold weather season
      • The hot weather season
      • The southwest monsoon season
      • The retreating monsoon season
    • Climatic Regions of India
  • Soils in India
    • Classification of Soils
    • Soil textures
    • Issue of Soil degradation & Soil Erosion
    • Soil Conservation
  • Natural Vegetation
    • Types of Forests in India
    • Forest Cover in India
    • Forest Conservation
    • Forest Problems in India

ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

  • Floods and Droughts  
  • Forest fires
  • Deforestation
  • Desertification
  • Pollution
  • Climate Change and Global Warming

BASICS OF ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY

  • Definition, Development and scope of Economic Geography
  • Type of Economic Activities
    • Primary Activities
    • Secondary Activities
    • Tertiary, Quaternary and Quinary Activities                
  • Recent Themes and Concepts in Economic Geography
  • Agglomeration Economies
  • Neo-liberalism
  • Rise of macro regional Economic block
  • Ethnicity in Economic Geography
  • Concept of digital divide

RESOURCE

  • Land Resource
    • Land-use Pattern and changes
    • Problems of Land Resources:
      • Land Degradation: Causes and Impact
      • Concept of Land Degradation Neutrality
    • Land Use Planning and Policy
  • Water Resources
    • Extent of Water Resources
    • Water Resource Potential of India
    • Utilization and related problems (Pollution)
    • Inter- state water disputes in India
    • Water management, conservation and Development
    • National Water Policy
  • Mineral Resources
    • Types of Mineral Resources
    • Distribution Pattern of Minerals in World
    • Major Mineral Belts of India
    • Problems related to mining
    • Conservation of Mineral Resources
    • National Mineral Policy, 2019
  • Energy resources
    • Classification of Energy Resources
    • Distribution and production trend of major energy Resources
      • Coal
      • Petroleum
      • Natural gas
    • Strategic Oil Reserves
    • Exploration of Coal Bed Methane
    • Non-Conventional Energy Resources
      • Solar Energy
      • Wind Energy
      • Geothermal
    • Nuclear Energy Resources: Challenges and prospects in India
  • Recent Debates on Resources
    • Geopolitics of Natural Resources
    • Globalisation and Unsustainable exploitation of natural resources
    • Depletion of natural resources versus Economic Growth
    • Changing Pattern of Land Use and Causes
    • Water Crisis: Causes, Conflicts and Resolution
    • Energy Crisis
    • Challenges and constraints faced by coal sector
    • Challenges in Hydropower sector
    • Renewable Energy: way toward sustainability
    • Energy Security: Energy Policy and strategy in India

AGRICULTURE

  • Agriculture Basic Terminologies
    • Cropping pattern
    • Agriculture Productivity
    • Agriculture Intensity
    • Land capability
  • Location of agriculture
  • World Agriculture Typologies
  • Salient features of Indian Agriculture
  • Problems of Indian Agriculture
  • Factor Affecting Agriculture
    • Geographical factors
    • Institutional factors
    • Technological factors
  • Major Crops and conditions for growth
  • Regionalization of Agriculture
  • Various Revolutions in Agriculture Sector
    • Green Revolution
      • Impact of Green Revolution
      • Evergreen Revolution
    • White Revolution
    • Operation Flood
    • Blue Revolution
  • Agricultural Policies and Initiatives
    • Minimum Support Price: Benefits and Challenges
    • Agriculture Market Produce Committees: Issues
    • National Agriculture Market (NAM)
    • Agricultural Produce and Livestock Marketing (Promotion and Facilitating) Act (APLM), 2017
    • National Livestock Mission
    • National Programme for Bovine Breeding and Dairy Development (NPBBD) 
    • Rashtriya Gokul Mission
    • Agriculture Export Policy, 2018
    • Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi (PM-KISAN)
    • Pradhan Mantri Annadataaay Sanrakshan Abhiyan (Pm-Aasha)
    • Operation Greens
    • Dairy Processing & Infrastructure Development Fund (DIDF)
    • Fisheries and Aquaculture Infrastructure Development Fund (FIDF).
    • Agriculture Census
  • Food Security
    • Nature of Food Insecurity: Duration, Severity and types
    • Trend and Pattern in Food Insecurity
    • Causes and Geography of famine
    • Key Dimension of food security
    • Efforts and Remedies to ensure food security
  • Agricultural in Discussion
    • Controversy over GM Crops: Benefits and Issues
    • Impact of climate Change on Agriculture
    • Evergreen Green Revolution for Sustainable Livelihood
    • Rainbow Revolution
    • Blue Revolution: Impact on Rural Economy
    • Climate Smart Agriculture
    • Need of Agriculture Diversification
    • Mixed farming: Hedging Agriculture Risks
    • Problems and Prospects of dry-zone agriculture
    • Plantation Agriculture: Issues involved
    • Challenges of increasing Agriculture Productivity and Production
    • New ‘White Revolution’: Need, Scope and Challenges
    • Contract Farming: Benefits and Challenges
    • Role of infrastructural and institutional 
      factors in the recent transformation of Indian agriculture         
    • Impact of advanced agricultural technologies on the Environment
    • Soil Health Card scheme and  rationalisation of fertilizer subsidies
    • Food Security: India’s Vulnerability and way-out

INDUSTRY

  • Classification of Industries
  • Factors affecting location of Industries
    • Weber’s Model of Industrial Location
    • Losch theory of Profit Maximization
  • Various Industries: Location, Prospects and Challenges
    • Iron and Steel Industry
    • Textile Industry
    • Jute Industry
    • Auto Mobile Industry
    • Fertilizer Industry
    • Agro-based Industries
    • Other Industries
  • Industrial Regions and its Characteristics
    • Major Industrial Regions of the World
    • Industrial Regions of India
    • Industrial Policies and Development
    • A Scheme for Promotion of Innovation, Rural Industry and Entrepreneurship
    • Scheme of Fund for Regeneration of Traditional Industries
    • Stand Up India
    • Fourth Industrial Revolution
    • Role of Industrial development in minimizing regional inequalities
    • Problems of Industrial regions
    • Factors behind the growth and present location pattern of automobile industry in India                                                                                                                
    • Pharmaceutical industry: Locational pattern and reasons
    • Sugar industry: Problems and challenges of current pattern
    • Food Processing Industry: Untapped Potential
    • Agro based Industries: Problems and Prospects
    • Impact of agro-based industries on cropping pattern
    • Tourism: Prospects and Impact on Environment

TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION

  • Land Transport
    • Roads
      • Classification of roads
      • National Highway Grid
      • Problems and Prospects
      • Bharatmala Pariyojana
    • Railways
      • Significance and Problems of Indian Railways
      • Dedicated Freight Corridors
      • Privatisation of Railways
    • Pipelines
      • Significance, Distribution and Challenges
    • Water Transport
      • Inland: National Waterways
        • Factors affecting Inland waterways
        • Significance and Challenges
        • Jal Marg Vikas Project
      • Seaways and Oceanic Route
        • Shipping
        • Major Ports of World and India
        • Challenges in Port Development
        • Sagarmala Project
      • Air Transport
        • National Airways
          • National Civil Aviation Policy
          • Regional Connectivity Scheme (UDAN)
          • International Airways
        • Communications
          • Communication Infrastructure
          • National Telecom Policy
        • Major Issues in Transport and Communication
          • Role of Transport in Regional Development
          • Need for holistic transport planning to improve the city’s mobility
          • Carbon footprint of the transport sector
          • Road Transport: Investment Challenges
          • Inland Waterways: Development challenges and prospects
          • Ports: Inclusive centres of economic  development
          • Problem of Pot Development
          • Analysis of Sagarmala Project
          • Environmental issues of maritime shipping
          • Role of Transport in Regional Development
          • Eco Tourism: Way toward Responsible Tourism
        • Trade
        • World Trade Pattern
          • Major Oceanic Trade Routes
        • Basis of Overseas Trade
        • Types of International Trade
          • Bilateral Trade
          • Multilateral Trade
        • Various Organisation Related to International Trade
        • Regional Trade Blocks
        • Foreign Trade: India
          • Trends in India’s Foreign Trade
          • Composition Indian Trade
          • Direction of India’s Foreign Trade
        • Trade Pattern and Policies
          • Changing Pattern of India’s foreign trade
          • Challenges and prospects of foreign trade of India
          • Impact of trade liberalisation on the geographical distribution of industries
          • Neo-liberal reforms in Africa: Race of India and China

DEMOGRAPHY AND CENSUS WORLD & INDIA

  • Concept of human resources
  • Factors affecting the distribution of Population
  • Population growth
    • Theories of Population Growth
      • Malthusian Theory
      • Marxian Theory
      • Demographic transition theory
      • Optimum Population Theory
    • Size, growth rate and distribution of population
    • Components of Population growth
  • Demographic Dividend
    • Demographic Window of Opportunity
  • Components of Population change
    • Birth Rate
    • Death Rate (Mortality Rate)
    • Migration
      • Factors responsible for migration
      • Type of Migration
      • Issues related to migration
      • Migration pattern in world and India
      • World Migration Report, 2018
    • Population Composition
      • Age Sex Pyramids & their significance
      • Trends and Pattern in Sex Ratio
      • Initiatives to improve Sex ratio
      • Trends and Patterns in Literacy
      • Government’s Efforts
    • Fertility Rate
    • Impact of Population Change
    • Population Policies
      • Need for revision of National Population Policy
    • Population problems
      • Global Nutrition Report, 2018
      • Global Hunger Index

SETTLEMENTS AND URBANIZATION

  • Rural Settlements
    • Classification of Rural Settlements
    • Function of Rural Settlements
    • Patterns of Rural Settlements
    • Changing Pattern of Rural Settlements
  • Urban Settlements
    • Origin of Urban Settlements- Functional  Classification of Towns
    • Urbanization
      • Indian Mega Cities
      • Central Place Theory
      • Primate City
      • Morphology of Indian Cities
      • Conurbations
      • Urban Slums
      • Rural Urban Fringe
      • Rural Urban Continuum
    • Issues related to Urbanization in India
      • Habitat – III Conference
    • Schemes
      • Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana or Housing for All Scheme
      • Smart City Initiative
      • AMRUT (Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation)
      • HRIDAY (Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana)

REGIONAL PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT

  • Concept of Region
  • Types of Regions
  • Issues of Regional Imbalances
  • Strategies for Regional Development

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

  • Growth v/s Development
  • Approaches to Human Development
  • Human Development Index
  • International comparisons of Human Development
    • World Development Report, 2019
  • Human Development Report    

UPSC SYLLABUS

  • Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure
  • Separation of powers Fundamental Rights, Preamble, DPSP, Fundamental Duties, etc.
  • Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries
  • Salient features of RP Act.

HISTORICAL UNDERPINNING

  • Constitution: Why and How?
  • Historical Background

EVOLUTION

  • Constituent Assembly and its vision of future
  • Making of the Constitution
  • Constitution as a living document
  • Democracy and diversity
  • Outcomes of democracy
  • Crisis of Democratic order
  • National Commission to Review the Working of the Constitution
  • Comparison of the Indian Constitutional scheme with that of other countries

FEATURES

  • Sources of the Constitution
  • Salient features of the Constitution
  • The Philosophy of the Constitution
  • System of Government: Parliamentary & Presidential System
  • Role of Convention under the Constitution
  • Comparison between Judicial Review and Parliamentary Supremacy

AMENDMENTS

  • The Constitution Amendment of the Constitution
  • Keshvananda and Bharti Case Judgement
  • 42nd and 44th Amendment to the Constitution
  • The Constitution (103rd Amendment) Act, 2019 (124th Constitution Amendment Bill) to provide 10% reservation in government jobs and educational  institutions to the economically weaker sections (EWS)
  • (125th Amendment) Bill, 2019

SIGNIFICANT PROVISIONS

  • Preamble of the Constitution
    • Debate : Is Preamble part of the Constitution and its amendment
  • Citizenship
    • National Register of Citizens
  • Fundamental Rights
    • Rule of Law
    • Procedure Established by Law vs Due Process of Law
    • Exceptions to Fundamental Rights
    • Amenability of Fundamental Rights
    • Rights following from other provision  of the Constitution
  • Major Debates/ Issues around Fundamental Rights:
    • Limitations upon the Freedom
    • Freedom of Press and Censorship
    • Free Speech: Rights & Limits and Hate speech
    • Data protection: Privacy Vs. Innovation
    • RTI amendments
    • Sedition-Law- Comprehensive public discussion regarding Section 124A of the Indian Penal Code 1860
    • Right To Information Act 2005.
    • Defamation-Should it be decriminialised
    • ‘Living wills’/ Euthanasia
    • Restriction on the entry of women in places of worship
    • Reservation in India – Explained in Layman’s Terms
    • Reservation in promotion
    • Aadhaar and Privacy issues
    • Constitutionality of article 35A
  • Directive Principles of the State Policy
    • Scope of DPSP: Economic and SocialDemocracy
    • Implementation of Directives
    • Conflict between Fundamental Rights and role of judiciary in harmonizing them
    • Challenge of implementing Uniform civil code
  • Fundamental Duties
  • Union Territories
    • Chief Minister Vs Lieutenant Governor: Rules, Rights and Responsibilities
  • Special Status of Jammu and Kashmir
    • Kashmir Unrest
  • Special Provisions for some States
  • Scheduled and Tribal areas
  • Official Language
    • Reasons for the 58thAmendment

MAJOR DOCTRINES

  • Doctrine of Basic Structure of the Constitution
  • Doctrine of Harmonious Construction
  • Doctrine of Eclipse
  • Doctrine of Pith and Substance
  • Doctrine of Incidental or Ancillary Powers
  • Doctrine of Colourable Legislation
  • Doctrine of Severability
  • Doctrine of Territorial Nexus
  • Doctrine of Laches

PRESSURE GROUPS AND FORMAL/INFORMAL ASSOCIATIONS AND THEIR ROLE IN THE POLITY

  • Pressure Groups
  • Popular Struggles and Movements
  • Rise of Popular movements

ELECTION & THE REPRESENTATIVES OF PEOPLE’S ACT

  • Political Parties
    • Criminalisation of politics
    • Freebies Politics in India
    • Issues Related to the Working of Political Parties
    • Inner Party Democracy
    • Significance of Strong Opposition in Democracy
  • Elections
    • Role of Civil Society in Free and Fair Election
    • What is Tactical Voting and Proportional Representation?
    • What is Absentee Ballot?
  • Voting Behaviour
  • Election Laws
    • Representation of People (Amendment) Bill 2010- Voting rights to NRI
    • Introduction of NOTA
    • Bill on Right to Recall Legislators
  • Electoral reforms
    • Demand For A Hybrid Electoral System
    • Simultaneous Elections
    • About Paper Trail units
    • Election Funding (Electoral bonds) Corporate funding laws
    • State Funding in elections
    • Women voices in elections
    • Law Commission Report on Electoral Reforms
  • Anti-Defection Law
    • Anti-Defection Law: Is it time for reconsideration?

DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES AND THE DEVELOPMENT INDUSTRY

  • The role of NGOs
    • NGOs and Development/ Crackdown on NGOs
    • Accountability and transparency in NGOs
  • SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders

MAJOR ISSUES

  • Dalit assertion and Politics of reservation
  • Should India spend more on science or Social welfare?
  • Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005
  • Agrarian crisis: Issues in farmer economy
  • Issues related to Social Media
  • Media freedom and Responsible reporting
  • Marital rape
  • Section 377: Constitutionality Vs Morality
  • Legalising Sports Betting In India

MECHANISM, LAWS, INSTITUTIONS AND BODIES CONSTITUTED FOR THE PROTECTION AND BETTERMENT OF THESE VULNERABLE SECTIONS

  • Special Provisions relating to Certain Classes
    • Muslim Personal law: Polygamy/ Triple talaq
  • Scheduled and Tribal Areas
    • SC/ST Act judgment: Protecting the innocent or diluting the Protection?

UPSC SYLLABUS

  • Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States
  • Issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure
  • Devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.
  • Parliament and State Legislatures – structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.
  • Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive
  • Ministries and Departments of the Government
  • Structure, organization and functioning of the Judiciary
  • Dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions

ISSUES AND CHALLENGES PERTAINING TO THE FEDERAL STRUCTURE

  • Union and its territory
    • Formation of state and Altercation of boundaries
  • Nature of Federal System
  • Peculiar features of Indian federalism
  • A Critique of the Federal System
    • Challenges of Nation building
    • Challenges Of Special Status State And Problems
  • Demand for New states: Gorkhaland, Nagalim, Vidharbha, Purvanchal etc.
  • Era of One-Party dominance
  • Regional aspirations
  • Emergency Provisions
    • Imposition of President Rule
    • Fundamental Rights during Emergency
  • Conversion of state to UT unilateraly by centre-A constitutional question

STRUCTURE, ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONING OF THE UNION EXECUTIVE

  • President
    • President of India – Discretionary Powers- Imposition of President’s rule
    • Is President a mere Rubber Stamp
  • Vice President
  • Prime Minister
  • Central Council of Ministers
  • Cabinet Committees

STRUCTURE, ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONING OF THE STATE EXECUTIVE

  • Governor
    • Provisions related to removal of Governor (Article 156)
    • Discretionary Powers
    • Politicization of the Post of Governor
  • Chief Minister
  • State Council of Ministers

PARLIAMENT

  • Parliament
    • Sessions of Parliament: Adjournment, Prorogation, Dissolution etc.
    • Lacunas in Parliamentary Functioning in India
    • When Does a Bill Lapse in Indian Parliament?
    • Types of Majorities Used in the Indian
    • Election to Rajya Sabha: The Procedure.
    • Relevance of Rajya Sabha
    • Government Budgeting: Indian Budget for
    • Budget Documents Made Simple: Key to Budget Documents.
    • Cut Motions: Policy Cut, Economy Cut, and Token Cut.
    • Misuse of Ordinance promulgation power
    • Office of the Speaker: Powers and Issues
    • Issue related to office of profit
    • Breach Of Privilege: Special privileges   to MP’s and its implications
  • Parliamentary Committees
    • Parliamentary Committees in Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.
    • Diminishing importance of parliamentary committees

STATE LEGISLATURE

  • State Legislature
    • Full statehood to Delhi: Should it be granted or not?
    • Relevance of Council of State    

FUNCTIONS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE UNION AND STATES

7th Schedule

SEPARATION OF POWER

  • Power Sharing
  • Centre-State Relations
    • Inter-State Council vs National Development Council.
    • Separate State Flag in Karnataka
    • NITI Aayog: The new ‘think-tank’ to replace Planning Commission.
  • Foreign Policy
  • States demand a say in Foreign Policy?

DISPUTE REDRESSAL MECHANISMS AND INSTITUTIONS

  • Inter-State Relations
    • Inter-state River Water Dispute
    • Inter-state Councils
  • Parliamentary Forums
  • Parliamentary Groups
  • Administrative Tribunals
  • National Integration

DEVOLUTION OF POWERS AND FINANCES UP TO LOCAL LEVELS AND CHALLENGES THEREIN

  • Local Governments
    • Nagaland Reservation in Urban Bodies
    • Education Qualification made mandatory for contesting Local Government Elections
  • Panchayati Raj and PESA 1996
  • Municipalities
    • in Municipalities in Sync with Urban Development Missions

STRUCTURE, ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONING OF THE JUDICIARY

  • Higher Judiciary Appointments
    • Collegium system and issues.
    • Collegium Vs. NJAC
    • CJI removal
  • Judicial Review
  • Judicial Activism
    • Judicial activism and judicial Overreach
    • Judicial Accountability & RTI Act
  • Public Interest Litigation
    • Advocates (Amendment) Bill, 2017 Controversy
    • National Litigation Policy
  • Other Judicial Issues
    • All India Judicial Services
    • Proposal for National Court of Appeal
    • Judicial Pendency
    • Judicial Reforms
    • Problems with Tribunals, Problems arising out of sidestepping the HC
    • Alternate Dispute Redressal (ADR)
  • Major Judgements of Supreme Court
    • RIGHT TO CONVERT-the Supreme Court’s judgement regarding a person’s right to choose a religion, Issue of Religious  Conversion in India,
    • Reservation in promotion, Argument in favour of reservation in promotion, Argument against the reservation in  promotions
    • Supreme Court judgement on Caste, Religion in Polls
    • Validity of Aadhaar but with certain caveats
    • Cauvery River Verdict
    • Concept of Defamation in India
    • Should the SC proceedings be live streamed?

UPSC SYLLABUS

  • Pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity
  • Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation
  • Development processes and the development industry the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders
  • Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability
  • E-governance-applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential
  • Citizens Charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures
  • Role of civil services in a democracy
  • Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies
  • Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies

GOVERNANCE

  • Concept of Good Governance
  • Issues Concerning Governance
  • Right Based Approach in Policy Making
  • Public Policy Making and Policy Implementation
  • How to Establish Good Governance

TRANSPARENCY & ACCOUNTABILITY

  • Right to Information
    • Information sharing and transparency in government
    • RTI and Official Secret Act: Who’s winning and why Judiciary wants to remain isolated
  • Citizen’s Charters
    • Benefits of Citizen Charter
    • Citizen Charter in India: An Evaluation
    • Problems Faced in Implementing the Charters
    • Steps to improve Citizen Charters
    • Indian Approach to Citizen Charter: Sevottam Model
    • Administrative Reforms Commission’s Seven Step Model for Citizen Centricity
    • Right to Service
  • Extent of regulations and openness of media and social networking sites
    • K. Visanathan Committee On Hate Speech
    • Role of MEDIA in bringing Transparency and Accountability
    • Social Media and Accountability
  • E-Governance
    • Role of E-Governance in bringing Transparency and Accountability
    • Major E-Governance Projects and challenges in their implementation
  • Role of civil services in a democracy
    • Linkage of Civil Services and Democracy
    • Debate on Lateral Entry in Civil Services
    • Relation between Civil Servants and Political Executives
    • Performance Appraisal System in Bureaucracy
    • Reforms Needed In Indian Bureaucracy
  • Codes of Ethics and Code of Conduct
    • Paid news abuse by social media a poll menace
    • Model code of conduct
  • Utilization of Public funds
    • Significance of Public Accounts Committee
    • Challenges of corruption and incompetence

REGULATORY STRUCTURE AND GOVERNANCE REFORMS

  • Functions and responsibilities of various Bodies
    • Analysis of Autonomy and functioning of CAG, CBI, CVC and NHRC
    • Lokpal and rise of Ombudsman era: a critical evaluation of journey traveled  so far
    • State and operational effectiveness of Local governments in India
    • Corporate Governance in India – Why is it so critical
  • Police Reforms in India
  • Curb On VIP Culture
  • Prison Reforms in India
  • Improving Governance In Public Systems

DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES AND THE DEVELOPMENT INDUSTRY

  • Role of Self Help Group in Development
  • Shortcomings and Recommendations to  Improve Self Help Group
  • Role and functions of NGOs in the Development
  • Challenges Faced by NGOs in India
  • Issue of Fund Mismanagement
  • Role of Microfinance Institutions in Development Process
  • Issues Related to Microfinance Institutions and Recommendations
  • Role of Foreign aid in Development
  • The role and function of pressure groups in India
  • Changing Pattern of Pressure Group Politics in India

SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

  • Concept of Human Development
    • Economic Growth and Human Development: Two-Way Link
    • Measurement of Human Development
  • Understanding Poverty
    • Dimensions of Poverty
    • Linkage between Poverty and Development
    • Recommendations of Rangarajan Committee Report
    • Poverty Alleviation Strategy Since Independence
    • Programmes for Poverty Alleviation
    • Concept of Inequality
    • World Inequality Report 2018: Findings of the Report
    • Income Inequality in India
    • Recommendations to Reduce Inequality
  • HUNGER
    • Manifestations of Hunger and its causes
    • Challenges to Food Security
    • Global Hunger Index Report, 2018
    • Recommendations
  • Institutional Measures for Welfare of Vulnerable Sections
    • Issues Related to the Weaker Sections & Vulnerable groups in India
    • Constitutional Provisions for the  Welfare of Society
    • Institutional Measures for the Welfare of the Society
    • Issues with the Institutional Mechanisms
  • HEALTH
    • Public Health System of India
    • Shortcomings of the Healthcare Sector
    • Urgency of achieving Universal Health  Coverage
    • Evaluation of SWACHH BHARAT MISSION
    • Global Nutrition Report 2018
    • Initiatives Taken In Health Sector : Ayushman Bharat
    • National Health Policy
  • EDUCATION
    • Challenges of Education sector in India
    • Right to Education and Challenges to EWS Children
    • Initiatives by Government

ROLE OF CIVIL SERVICES IN A DEMOCRACY

  • Concept of civil services
  • Need for civil services
  • Different role of civil services
    • Law making
    • Policy formulation
    • Policy implementation
    • Policy evaluation
    • Civil services as protector of democracy
    • To protect minorities (religious and linguistic)
    • To promote Inclusive and sustainable 
      growth
    • Various Reforms in Civil Services

PRESSURE GROUPS AND FORMAL/INFORMAL ASSOCIATIONS AND THEIR ROLE IN THE POLITY

  • What are pressure groups?
  • Types of pressure groups
  • Significance of pressure groups in India
  • Differentiate between a pressure group and a political party
  • Evaluation of pressure groups role

APPOINTMENT TO VARIOUS CONSTITUTIONAL POSTS, POWERS, FUNCTIONS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF VARIOUS CONSTITUTIONAL BODIES

  • Appointment of CAG (procedure of appointment)- composition of CAG
  • Functions and responsibilities of CAG
  • Powers and privileges of CAG (provided by constitution and different Acts of Parliament.)
  • Appointment of ECI (procedure of appointment)- composition of ECI
  • Functions and responsibilities of ECI
  • Powers and privileges of ECI (provided by constitution and different ACTs of Parliament)
  • Appointment to UPSC (procedure of appointment)- composition of UPSC
  • Functions and responsibilities of UPSC
  • Powers and privileges of UPSC (provided by constitution and different ACTs of Parliament.)
  • Appointment to Finance commission (procedure of appointment)- composition of Finance commission
  • Functions and responsibilities of Finance commission
  • Powers and privileges of Finance commission (provided by constitution and different ACTs of Parliament.)
  • National commission for SCs and STs.

STATUTORY, REGULATORY AND VARIOUS QUASI-JUDICIAL BODIES

  • SEBI, CVC, CBI, Planning Commission NDC, PMO
  • TRAI, IRDA
  • National Human Rights Commission
  • State Human Rights Commission
  • Central Information Commission
  • State Information Commission
  • National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission
  • Medical Council of India
  • Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority
  • Biodiversity Authority of India
  • Press Council of India
  • Forward Markets Commission
  • Inland Waterways Authority of India
  • Role of CAG
  • 14th Finance Commission: Analysis
  • 7th Pay Commission Report and Repercussions
  • AFSPA and Second ARC
  • Inter-State River Water Dispute: Cauvery dispute
  • Role of Niti Aayog

RECENT BILLS & ACTS

  • 103rd Constitutional Amendment Act
  • Fugitive Economic Offenders Bill, 2018
  • Triple Talaq Ordinance                                                                                                 
  • Citizenship (Amendment) Bill
  • Draft Emigration Bill, 2019                                                                                     
  • Consumer Protection Bill, 2018
  • Prevention of Corruption (Amendment) Act, 2018                                                                          
  • Lokpal & Lokayukta Amendment Act, 2016
  • The Right of Children to Free & Compulsory Education (Amendment) Act, 2019        
  • Data (Privacy & Protection) Bill, 2017
  • The Transgender Persons (Protection of  Rights) Bill, 2016    
  • The Indian Institute of Information Technology (Amendment) Bill , 2017 (autonomy of institutes)

ELECTIONS

  • Criminalization of Politics
  • Issues Related to the Working of Political Parties
  • Enact Strong Laws to Cleanse Politics, says Supreme Court
  • How effective is Election Commission in Ensuring Fair Elections                        
  • Freebies Politics in India
  • Election Commission Proposal for Countering Bribe-for-Votes
  • Law Commission Report on Electoral Reforms                                                  
  • State Funding in Elections
  • Role of Civil Society in Free and Fair Election
  • Women Voices in Elections
  • Electronic Voting Machine (EVM) Issue                                             
  • About Paper Trail Units
  • Anti-Defection Law                                    
  • Office of Profit & RPA

MISCELLANEOUS

  • Constituent Assembly and its vision of future
  • Making of the Constitution
  • Constitution as a living document
  • Democracy and diversity
  • Outcomes of democracy
  • Crisis of Democratic order
  • National Commission to Review the Working of the Constitution
  • Comparison of the Indian Constitutional scheme with that of other countries

CONSTITUTIONAL BODIES

  • Election Commission
  • Union Public Service Commission
  • State Public Service Commission
  • Finance Commission
    • 14th Finance Commission and LocalGovernments
    • 15th Finance commission: Issues with Term and References
  • State Finance Commission
  • Law Commission
    • 268th Report of Law Commission on Bail Reforms
    • Law Commission report on Hate Speech
  • Pay Commission
    • 7th Pay Commission
  • National Commission for SCs
  • National Commission for STs
  • Special Officer for Linguistic Minorities
  • Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) , Functioning and Autonomy of CAG
  • National Commission for Backward Classes
  • Attorney General of India
  • Advocate General of the State
  • Co-operative Societies
  • Tribunals
    • Problems with Tribunals, Problems arising out of sidestepping the HC

STATUTORY, REGULATORY AND VARIOUS QUASI-JUDICIAL BODIES

  • Rationalization Of Autonomous Bodies
  • National Human Rights Commission
  • National Commission for Women
  • State Human Rights Commission
  • Central Information Commission
  • State Information Commission
  • Central Vigilance Commission
    • Preventive Vigilance
  • Central Bureau of Investigation
    • Autonomy of CBI
  • Lokpal and Lokayuktas
    • Issues related to the appointment of Lokpal
    • Ammendment to Lokpal Act
  • Quasi judicial bodies
  • NITI Aayog
    • NITI Aayog’s Report on Rationalization of Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSS)
  • Model Land leasing Law prepared by NITI Aayog

SECOND ARC REPORT

  • Functions of Government                  
  • Issues in Organizational Structure of GOI
  • Good Governance and Citizen Centric Administration
  • e-Governance                                                                                               
  • Ethics in Governance

INITIATIVES FOR TRANSPARENCY & ACCOUNTABILITY

  • Public Accountability Concept                        
  • Virtual ID for AADHAR
  • Social Media & Accountability
  • Accountability & Transparency in NGOs
  • Autonomy of CBI
  • Analysis of Functioning Of CAG
  • People Centric Governance
  • Pro-Active Governance & Timely Implementation (PRAGATI)
  • Right Based Approach in Policy Making
  • Direct Benefi t Transfer               
  • Issues Related to Making Aadhaar Mandatory
  • Reforms Needed In Indian Bureaucracy
  • Performance Appraisal System In Bureaucracy                                                    
  • Curb on VIP Culture
  • Social Audit Law

ORGANISATION/BODIES

  • 14th Finance Commission Analysis
  • 7th Pay Commission Report &Repercussions                                                   
  • AFSPA & Second ARC                                     
  • Role of NITI Aayog
  • Significance of Public Accounts Committee      
  • Right to Information
  • Accountability & Transparency in NGOs

SCHEME

  • PradhanMantri Jan-DhanYojana (PMJDY)                   
  • Swachh Bharat Mission
  • National Skill Development Mission                                                                           
  • National Food Security Act, 2013
  • SansadAdarsh Gram Yojana
  • Smart City Mission                                                                       
  • Saubhagya Plan
  • NAMAMI GANGE                                                
  • Critical Analysis of Stand up India scheme
  • MGNREGA

POLICIES

  • NITI Aayog’s Report on Rationalization of Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSS)           
  • Law Commission’s 268th Report on Bail Reforms
  • Model Land Leasing Law Prepared by NITI Aayog                                                     
  • T K  Visanathan Committee on Hate Speech                                                             
  • Law Commission Report on Tribunals in India                                                   
  • Law Commission Report on United Nations Convention against Torture
  • National Education Policy

MISCELLANEOUS

  • Inter-State Water Dispute
  • Debate on Directly Elected Mayor
  • Debate on the Issue of Lobbying in India
  • Media Role & Censorship Issue
  • The Role of States in India’s Foreign Policy

UNION & STATE GOVERNMENT

  • Imposition of President Rule: An Analysis
  • Is President a mere Rubber Stamp?
  • Politicization of the Post of Governor
  • Lacunas in Parliamentary Functioning in India                                                                   
  • Significance of Strong Opposition in Democracy
  • Ordinance Making Power in India
  • Balance between Fundamental Rights & Parliamentary Privileges                                      
  • Special Provisions for other States
  • Special Category Status to States                                   
  • National Register of Citizens in Assam
  • Gorkhaland Crisis                       
  • Issue Related to Office of Profit                                                                                         
  • Women Reservation in Parliament        
  • Centre vs State: Case of AAP vs LG

JUDICIARY

  • Shortage of Judges in Indian Courts
  • Issue Related to Appointment of Judges
  • Procedure for Removal of Judges: Critical Analysis
  • Should Judiciary be under RTI
  • Judicial Accountability
  • Post Retirement Appointment of Judges
  • Issue of Judicial Overreach                                               
  • Judicial Reform: How to Reduce Pendency of Cases?
  • Future Challenges of the Indian Judiciary
  • All-India Judicial Service
  • Draft witness protection scheme
  • Contempt of Court
  • Government as the Biggest Litigant in India                         
  • Public Interest Litigation                                                    
  • National Litigation Policy
  • Administrative Tribunals
  • Sabrimala Temple Verdict
  • Right to Convert
  • Alternate Dispute Redressal Mechanism
  • Should India abolish Death Penalty?

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

  • Education Qualification Made Mandatory for Contesting Local Government Elections
  • Reforms needed in Municipalities in Sync with Urban Development Missions                    
  • Municipal reforms for sustainable development of Cities
  • 14th Finance Commission & Local Governments
  • Telangana: Tribal Hamlets to Village Panchayat Status                           
  • Maharashtra Government Recently Launched a new Initiative to
  • Dharavi- one of the Largest Slums in the World
  • Panchayat Raj                                                    
  • Strengthening Participation of Women in Panchayat                                                       
  • PESA in Tribal Areas                        
  • Deepening Grass Root Democracy in Sixth Schedule Areas
  • 2nd ARC Recommendations

ELECTIONS

  • Criminalization of Politics
  • Issues Related to the Working of Political Parties                                                           
  • Enact Strong Laws to Cleanse Politics, says Supreme Court                                            
  • How effective is Election Commission in Ensuring Fair Elections                                     
  • Freebies Politics in India
  • Election Commission Proposal for Countering Bribe-for-Votes                                           
  • Law Commission Report on Electoral Reforms
  • State Funding in Elections
  • Role of Civil Society in Free and Fair Election                                                      
  • Women Voices in Elections
  • Electronic Voting Machine (EVM) Issue
  • About Paper Trail Units
  • Anti-Defection Law                                                                                                          
  • Office of Profit & RPA

MISCELLANEOUS

  • Revisiting Section 124-A of IPC

UPSC SYLLABUS

  • Salient features of Indian Society
  • Diversity of India
  • Effects of globalization on Indian society
  • National Integration, communalism, regionalism & secularism
  • Role of women and women’s organization
  • Social empowerment, poverty and developmental issues
  • Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable section
  • Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources
  • Issues relating to poverty and hunger
  • Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

UNITY IN DIVERSITY

  • Concepts of Unity and Diversity
  • Forms of Diversity in India
  • Reasons for so much Diversity
  • Bonds of Unity In India
  • Geo-political Unity
  • The Institution of Pilgrimage
  • Tradition of Accommodation
  • Tradition of Interdependence
  • Role of Sensitive Leaders
  • Constitutional Safeguards – Role of Constitution Framers

CHALLENGES OF DIVERSITY TO UNITY (CHALLENGES TO NATIONAL INTEGRATION)

  • Diversity of Constituents
  • Regionalism and Cultural Identities
  • Casteism
  • Linguism
  • Communalism
  • Social Inequalities
  • Regional Disparities
  • Ethno-Nationality and Ethnic Conflicts
  • Tribal Identity
  • Basic Sociological Concepts
  • The Family and Kinship
  • Concept of Patriarchy In India

SECULARISM

  • Secularism And Secularization
  • Western and Indian Concept
  • Process of Secularization
  • Secularism and Forced Conversion in India

REGIONALISM, COMMUNALISM, FUNDAMENTALISM AND COMMUNAL VIOLENCE

  • Regionalism
  • Regionalism in India
  • Types of Regionalism
  • Effects of Regionalism
  • Regionalism: Demand for Smaller States
  • Strategies to tackle Regionalism
  • Sons of Soil Concept
  • Communilism Concept, Orgin, Impact
  • Fundamentalism-religious, Cultural
  • Communal Violence

SOCIAL EMPOWERMENT

  • Constitutional Provisions Relevant to Social Justice & Empowerment of Scheduled Caste & Scheduled Tribes
  • Status of Minorities In India

THE SCHEDULED CASTES: FROM UNTOUCHABLE TO DALIT

  • Population of the Scheduled Castes
  • Types of Disabilities of the SCs
  • From Untouchables to the Dalits: The Process of Identity Formation
  • Combating Mechanism against Caste Atrocities and Violence
  • The State Efforts for Dalit Emancipation
  • Identify Political Implications on Dalits

TRIBALS IN INDIA

  • Chronic Indebtedness
  • Forest Related Problems
  • Destruction of the Forest Environment and the Tribal People
  • Development and Displacement
  • Analysis of Forest Rights Act

WOMEN MOVEMENTS

  • 19th Century Women Movements – Under Social Reform Movements
  • Women’s Issues During Gandhian Era
  • Issues in Post Independence Era
  • Violence Against Women
  • Developmental Movement
  • Uniform Civil Code
  • Feminism and Post Feminism

SOCIAL JUSTICE

  • Concept of Casteism in India
  • Caste and Politics
  • The Reservation Policy Debate
  • Social Justice and Social Development

SOCIAL SECURITY IN INDIA

  • Concept
  • Social Security System in India
  • Organized Sector and Social Security
  • Unorganised Sector and Social Security
  • Centrally Funded Social Assistance Programmes
  • Public Initiatives
  • Review of the implementation of Social Security Laws in the Country
  • Suggestions for Improving the Social Security Matrix
  • Social security code for all

UNDERSTANDING POVERTY

  • Dimensions of Poverty
  • Linkage between Poverty and Development
  • Recommendations of Rangarajan Committee Report
  • Poverty Alleviation Strategy Since Independence
  • Programmes for Poverty Alleviation
  • Concept of Inequality

GLOBALIZATION

  • Meaning of Globalization
  • Reasons for Globalization
  • Dimensions/Impact
  • Political
  • Cultural and Social
  • Economic
  • Anti-Globalization Movement
  • New Localism
  • NPM (New public management)          

URBANIZATION & CENSUS 2011

  • Urbanization
  • Trend and pattern of Urbanization
  • Issues Related to Urbanization in India
  • Status of Service Delivery and Governance
  • Urban Development Projects
  • Critical Analysis of Smart City Mission
  • SDG’s and urbanization

CENSUS 2011

  • Highlights of 2011 Census
  • Analysis of Sex Ratio Data
  • Impact of Skewed Ratio
  • Laws related to Prevent Female Infanticide
  • Recent initiatives
  • Trend and Current Scenario of Literacy in India
  • Literacy Challenges in India as Whole
  • Efforts to Improve the Literacy in Country
  • Child Health Indicators and Maternal Health             
  • Initiatives taken by the Government
  • Why the Health schemes fail to bring change?
  • Family Planning and Population Policy of India
  • Analysis on Status of Old Age Population: Issues & Policy Initiative
  • Socio-Economic Caste Census 2011
  • NRC

CONTEMPORARY ISSUES

  • Secularism, Regionalism & Communalism
    • Secularism and Anti Conversion    
    • Regionalism: Demand for Smaller States     
    • Socio-Economic Caste Census, 2011            
    • Gender Discrimination in the Corporate Sector

ISSUES RELATED TO WOMEN

  • Gender Discrimination in Corporate Sector
  • Female Genital Mutilation
  • Bill on Banning Triple Talaq
  • Issues of women entry to place of worship
  • Adultery No Longer a Crime : SC
  • Unwanted Girls in India
  • Altruistic Surrogacy in India
  • Women in Panchayats
  • Women Participation in Economy
  • # Me Too Movement
  • Draft National Policy for Women, 2016
  • Laws Related to Stalking in India
  • Debate on the Issue of Marital Rape
  • India’s Maternity Laws need Serious Tweaking         
  • Women in Judiciary Matters
  • SC’s Judgment on Dowry
  • Gender Budgeting: Critical Analysis

ISSUES RELATED TO CHILDREN

  • Issues Faced by Children in War Zone
  • High Dropout Rate of Girls in India
  • Child Trafficking
  • Safety of Children in Schools
  • Issue of Malnutrition in India
  • Amendments Proposed in Child Labour Act
  • Plight of Street Children
  • Juvenile Justice System
  • Child Marriages in India
  • Death for child Rape
  • Draft National Child Protection Policy
  • National Action Plan for Children, 2016

OTHER ISSUES

  • India’s Family Planning Programme: Critical Analysis
  • Demography and Policy Planning
  • India’s Ageing Report
  • Legalising Same Sex Marriage
  • Domestic Workers: Issues and Laws
  • Development Leading to Displacement
  • Moral Policing
  • Euthanasia and Living Will
  • Inadequacies in existing Human Trafficking laws in India
  • Transgender Bill passed in Lok Sabha with Amendments
  • Mental Health Care Bill
  • Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act
  • Manual Scavenging
  • Mob lynching and Rule of Law
  • Issue Related to Under trials
  • Income Inequality in India
  • Indigenous People in India : An Analysis
  • Debate Over Death Penalty
  • Global Slavery Index Report
  • Right to Privacy Judgement
  • SC Verdict on SC/ST Atrocities Bill
  • Social Stigma Attached with HIV

HEALTH & EDUCATION

  • Status Health sector
  • Status of Education sector
  • Allied Health Care Professions Bill, 2018
  • Ahead on Malaria: On reduction in cases in India
  • India and Neglected Disease Treatment
  • TB Status in India and Bedaquiline Patent Challenge
  • Status of E-Pharmacies in India
  • Changes Proposed in No Detention Policy
  • National Policy on Education
  • Capacity Building for Primary Health Care
  • NITI Aayog on Privatisation of Urban Health Care
  • National Health Policy, 2017
  • Regulating Private Healthcare
  • India’s Nutrition Challenge
  • Food Fortification
  • Sanitation and Nutrition Linkage
  • Ayushman Bharat

MISCELLANEOUS

  • Is social media polarizing society?
  • Online political adverstising and challenge for democracy and society
  • Draft Social Security Code
  • Uniform Civil Code
  • Critical Analysis of Stand Up India Scheme
  • SC Suggests for Prison Reforms
  • Statue of Unity

UPSC SYLLABUS

  • Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country
  • Different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage
  • Transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints
  • e-technology in the aid of farmers
  • Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices
  • Public Distribution System – objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security
  • Technology missions
  • Economics of animal-rearing
  • Food processing and related industries in India- scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.
  • Land reforms in India.
  • Effects of liberalization on the economy
  • Changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth. Other economic development in field of Manufacturing and service sector

ROLE OF AGRICULTURE IN INDIAN ECONOMY

  • Land resource
  • Land-use pattern and Land capability classification
  • Causes and Impact of Land Degradation
  • Sustainable Land Management
  • Steps taken by GOI

LAND REFORMS

  • Objectives of Land Reforms in India
  • Progress of Land Reforms in India
  • NITI Aayog Report on Land Leasing

AGRICULTURE FINANCE

  • Features of Agricultural Finance
  • Criteria for Agricultural Credit
  • Need for Agricultural Finance
  • Sources of Agricultural Finance
  • Problems of Agricultural Finance
  • Measures taken to improve credit flow to agriculture
  • Co-operative Credit Societies in India

AGRICULTURAL CREDIT INSTITUTIONS

  • Multi Agency Approach
  • Commercial Bank
  • Lead Bank Scheme
  • Regional Rural Banks
  • National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD)
  • Reserve Bank of India
  • Kisan Credit Card Scheme
  • Bank Linkage Programme
  • Rural Infrastructure Development Fund (RIDF)
  • Government Policy For Agricultural Credit
  • Farmers Service Societies (FSS)

CROP INSURANCE IN INDIA

  • Issues Related to Crop Insurance
  • Pradhan MantriFasalBimaYojana
  • Comparison with Earlier Crop Insurance Schemes

AGRICULTURE MARKETING

  • Process of Agricultural Marketing in India
  • Structure of Agricultural Marketing in India
  • Importance of Proper Agriculture Marketing
  • Government Measures to Improve Agricultural Marketing in India
  • Analysis of APMC Act

SUBSIDIES

  • Objectives of subsidies
  • Transfer of resources from gainers from economic policies to losers from economic policies
  • Farm Subsidies
  • Fertiliser subsidies
  • Subsidy on power
  • Subsidy on irrigation
  • Rationale of Minimum Support Price
  • Impact of MSP on inflation
  • Public Distribution System: Objectives, functioning, limitations,, revamping, evolution from universal PDS to targeted PDS, Targeted PDS, a critical analysis of cost and benefit of PDS           
  • Buffer Stock policy and government’s intervention in food market to keep prices under reasonable limits to help consumers                                        
  • Food Security bill, questions of resource mobilization for the FSB, criticism of the FSB             
  • Important questions on the future of subsidies

AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTIONS IN INDIA

  • Green Revolution
  • White Revolution – Operation Flood
  • Yellow Revolution
  • Blue Revolution
  • Golden Fibre Revolution: Jute

FOOD PROCESSING

  • Processed Foods Scenario with respect to Specific Sectors
  • Infrastructure Development in Food Processing Sector
  • Issues in Food Processing Sector
  • FDI Policy in Food Processing
  • Notable Trends in the Indian Food Processing Sector
  • Strategies Adopted in Budget
  • New foreign and domestic investment
  • Sector-specific government policies

INDUSTRIAL POLICY AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT: MAIN ISSUES

  • Mahalanobis strategy and India’s industrial policy-Discussing Industrial policy resolution 
    1948 and 1956 critically
  • New Economic Policy and Industrial policy under the policy of liberalization, privatization and globalization
  • Phases of Industrial development since independence

MAIN FEATURES OF INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA

  • Roles of private sector and public sector, Investment in the industrial sector, employment, productivity, profit etc.
  • Strategies for disinvestment and privatization
  • Role of Small, Medium and Micro enterprises, Government Policy, main problems, effects of globalization
  • New Manufacturing Policy
  • Industrial disbursal and Industrial corridors
  • SEZs- Main issues like land use, relocation of same industries that exist, exports earnings vs loss of tax income
  • Industrial sickness, institutional mechanism to support the sick industries, exit policy issues
  • Main constraints in the industrial development of India
  • Effects of globalization on industries, Sub-prime crisis and sovereign debt crisis on Industry in India
  • Industrial Finance in India: Role of development banking, commercial banking, venture capital, angel capital in industrialization and promotion of entrepreneurship
  • Make in India achievements

UPSC SYLLABUS

  • Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, growth, development and unemployment
  • Mobilization of resources
  • Government Budgeting.
  • Investment models.
  • Financial and Money Market
  • Inflation
  • Direct and Indirect taxes
  • Inclusive growth & issues arising from it.

INDIAN ECONOMY AND ISSUES RELATING TO PLANNING

  • Role and objectives of Indian Planning
  • Planning Experience at the Centre and State level.
  • Regulatory Role of the State
  • Development Strategy in India’s Five Year Plan
  • Mahalanobis’ Four-Sector Growth Model and Employment Generation
  • Tackling the Problems of Poverty and Unemployment
  • Vital Role of the Public Sector
  • Analysis of India’s Economic Performance in Development Planning
  • Trends in Saving and Capital Formation since Independence
  • Role of NITI Aayog in Cooperative federalism

RESOURCE MOBILIZATION

  • Types of Resources: Physical and Financial
  • Need for Resource Mobilization- Police State and Democratic Welfare State policies
  • Sources of Resource Mobilization: Public Sector and Private Sector
  • Taxation and Mobilization of Resources for Economic Growth
  • Direct Taxes and Mobilisation of Resources
  • Agricultural Taxation & Resource Mobilisation
  • Role of Indirect Taxes in Resource Mobilisation
  • Mobilization of financial resources through Government Revenues
  • Role of Public Debt in resource mobilization and effects: Market borrowing, loans, grants, etc.
  • Role of Fiscal and Monetary policies in resource mobilization
  • Role of Foreign investment in resource mobilization:Desirability and Consequences
  • Multi-lateral agencies and resource mobilization
  • Challenges to Resource Mobilization

INCLUSIVE GROWTH AND ISSUES ARISING FROM IT

  • Meaning and concept of Inclusion
  • India’s experience of Inclusion
  • Why India’s growth is not inclusive?: Rural economy based growth, Need of Sustainable agriculture, food security and resilience for growth
  • What are the solutions?
  • Inclusion process through Social sector flagship schemes and Ground realities
  • Public distribution schemes: Can it be the way to inclusive growth
  • Financial inclusion as an instrument of inclusive growth
  • Poverty Alleviation and Employment Generation as a strategy for inclusive growth
  • Social sector development as an instrument for inclusive growth
  • Public private partnership for inclusive growth
  • Industrial Integration for inclusive growth
  • Sectoral and regional diversification as a tool for inclusive growth

GOVERNMENT BUDGETING

  • Budget terminology
  • Types of budget
  • Features of Outcome budgeting , Gender Budgeting
  • Benefits of budgeting
  • Flaws in budgeting process
  • Merger of Railway and General Budget
  • Budget analysis

INVESTMENT MODELS

  • Measures of Investment
  • Factors affecting investment
  • Classification of Investments : FDI
  • Angel Investors and Start-ups
  • Investment Models
  • Role of State
  • PPP (Public-Private Partnership)
  • Savings and Investment Trends

FISCAL POLICY

  • Fiscal Concept and Fiscal Policy in India
  • Government Revenues & Spending Trends
  • Impact of deficits on economic growth
  • Twin Balance Sheet syndrome
  • Types of Deficit

TAXATION

  • Objectives and Principles of Taxation
  • Taxation for Mobilization of Resources
  • Taxation System in India
  • Tax Reforms
  • GST and its impact on different sectors
  • Subsidies and its Impact

MONETARY POLICY IN INDIA

  • Instruments of Monetary Policy
  • Monetary policy in Pre-Reform Era (1948 – 1991)
  • Monetary Policy in Post-Reform Era (Since – 1991)
  • Urjit Patel Committee Report               
  • Monetary Policy Committee and Inflation Targeting

FINANCIAL SYSTEM

  • Money Market and Capital Market in India
  • Regulatory Framework in Indian Capital Market
  • Primary Market Reforms in India
  • Secondary Market Reforms in India
  • Current and capital account convertiblity
  • Risks of financial system              

BANKING

  • Indian Banking System
  • Terminologies/Concepts Related to Banking in India
  • Nationalization of Banks in India
  • Functions of Commercial Banks
  • Challenges Faced by Commercial Banks in India
  • Banking Reforms in India
  • New Bank License Criteria
  • Small Finance Banks and Payment Banks Criteria
  • Non-Banking Financial Company (NBFC)
  • Financial Inclusion
  • Issue of NPAs
  • Bills related to Banking

FOREIGN TRADE & INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

  • Trends in International Trade
  • Foreign Trade Policy
  • Balance of Payments and Foreign Capital
  • Impact of Globalization on Indian Economy
  • International Monetary Fund (IMF)
  • World Trade Organisation (WTO)
  • World Bank Group AIIB and NDB

Contemporary Issue: Sectors of Indian Economy

INDUSTRY & LABOUR

  • Draft National Food Processing Policy Released
  • Initiatives for Fund for Start-Ups
  • Companies Need to Look Beyond CSR                                                                               
  • Initiatives to Support MSME Sector                                                                                     
  • Model Shop & Establishment Bill, 2016
  • National Capital Goods Policy 2016 unveiled
  • H-1B Visa Rule Change & It’s Impact on IT Sector                                                           
  • Unemployment Survey                                                                                                     
  • Draft Social Security Code                                                                                              
  • Analysis of Competition Commission of India                                                                 
  • Exit Issues and Insolvency Resolution Process                                                                
  • Government Limitations in Job Creation                                                                        
  • The Code on Wages, 2019                                                                                                           
  • Amendments in Bankruptcy Code                                                                                 
  • Contract Worker: Issues and Steps Needed                                                                             
  • Feminization of Agriculture                                                                                          
  • Challenges and opportunities of fourth 
    Industrial Revolution                                         
  • Why Manufacturing Sector is not able to Generate Jobs?                                              
  • Inequality between Large Business Houses & Smaller Businesses
  • How Labour Regulations Affect Manufacturing?  

AGRICULTURE

  • Niti Aayog Launches Agricultural Marketing & Farm Friendly Reforms Index
  • Defects in Procurement Policy
  • Reforming Trade in Agriculture Products  
  • Draft Model APMC Act, 2016
  • NITI Aayog Report on Agriculture
  • Agriculture Export Policy, 2018
  • Farm Policies: One-Size-Fits-All do not Work   
  • Lab to Land: How to Improve
  • Agriculture Price Policy in India        

INFRASTRUCTURE

  • Inland Waterways in India                                                                                                                 
  • Aviation Sector & Regional Connectivity Scheme: Udan                                                               
  • Air Service Agreement                          
  • Airline Sector: Downtime and the Turnaround              
  • Privatization of Air India: Critical Analysis                                                                       
  • Help Scheme
  • Multi-Modal Transport System
  • Bharatmala Pariyojana : Revolution In Indian National Highways
  • Privatization of Railways                                                                                                
  • Transformation in Indian Railways                                                                                  
  • Connecting North East                                                                                                   
  • Optimising Thermal Power in India                                                                                 
  • Reliable and Affordable Energy                                                                                        
  • Mineral Auction Rules, 2015

Contemporary Issue: Policy and Reforms in Indian Economy

BUDGET & TAXATION

  • Low Tax to GDP Ratio: Reasons and Suggestions
  • Public Debt Management Cell
  • IBBI and Insolvency Rules
  • Ponzi Scheme and Issues                                                                                                
  • Fat tax: Concept Analysis                                                                                                
  • Concept of Municipal Bonds                                                                                           
  • Lower Taxes, Higher Compliance: Implication on Economy               
  • How Shell Companies are used in Black Money?                                                           
  • Offshore Investments in Tax Havens                                                                               
  • Concept of Google Tax and its Implications                                                                                 
  • Sunset Clause and its Significance in Policies                                                                 
  • Government Rule on Capital Gains Tax                                                                             
  • Credit Rating Agencies and their Implications                                                                 
  • Fugitive Economic Offenders Bill

BANKING & FINANCE

  • Concept of Wilfull Defaulter                                                                                            
  • Concept of Shadow Banking                                                                                                       
  • Non Performing Assets                                                                                                   
  • Marginal Cost of Funds based Lending Rate                                                                   
  • Unified Payment Interface                                                                                               
  • India Post Payments Bank                                                                                              
  • Differentiated Bank Licenses                                                                                           
  • Digital Payments Scenario                                                                                              
  • Monetary Policy Committee                                                                                            
  • Report of Working Group on Development of Corporate Bond Market in India
  • IL & FS issue and Corporate Governance in India                                                                
  • SEBI reforms on Corporate Governance – Uday Kotak Committee
  • SEBI and Commodity markets in India                                                                             
  • Concept of Crypto-Currencies                                                                                          
  • Crypto Currencies Come Under SEBI Lens                                                                       
  • Corporate Governance: Role of SEBI                                                                                    
  • Peer to Peer Lending Firms                                                                                            
  • Bank Recapitalization Program                                                                                       
  • Lessons on NPA from Global Banks                                                                                
  • Need of Regulatory Regime for Alternative Investment Fund
  • Name and Shame Willful Defaulters  

SCHEMES & POLICIES

  • Sustainable Development Goals                                                                                              
  • Ease of Doing Business                                                                                                  
  • Critical Analysis of PM Crop Insurance Scheme                                                                
  • Bhavantar Bhugtan Yojana                                                                                                             
  • Operation Greens                                                                                                                                            
  • Critical Analysis of Banks Board Bureau                                                                          
  • Critical Analysis of Draft Energy Policy                                                                             
  • Critical Analysis of Stand up India Scheme                                                                     
  • New PPP Policy                                                                                                                                                  
  • Sagarmala Project                                                                                                         
  • Critical Analysis of Bharatmala Project                                                                               
  • GST ANALYSIS                                                                                                            
  • How GST has Affected Small Business

EXTERNAL SECTOR

  • FDI Status and Issues in India
  • Permanent Residency Status for Foreign Investors                                                                         
  • WTO Reforms and India’s Stance
  • Dispute Settlement Mechanism at WTO
  • Gist of Foreign Trade Policy (FTP) 2015-2020                                                                  
  • Reforms in IMF Quota
  • Rising New Form of Protectionism
  • BIT Dispute Management Strategy
  • Broad Based Trade and Investment Agreement (India-EU FTA Talks)
  • Nachiket Mor Committee
  • P J  Nayak Committee
  • Vijay Kelkar Committee on PPP Reforms
  • Parthasarathi Shome Committee on GAAR
  • Urjit Patel Committee Report on Monetary Policy
  • Mahapatra Committee (NBFC Loan Restructuring)                                                           
  • Usha Thorat Committee (2012)
  • Bibek Debroy Committee (Railways)
  • N K Singh Panel Report on FRBM Act
  • Shanta Kumar Committee
  • Watal Committee on Digital Payments
  • HR Khan Committee on Foreign Portfolio Investment
  • Strategic Partnership Policy to Boost Defence Manufacturing: Dhirendra Singh Committee

Science and Technology

UPSC SYLLABUS

  • Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.
  • Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.

INTRODUCTION

  • India’s Policy in the Field of the Science & Technology
  • The Science & Technology Policy Resolution in 1958
  • Science & Technology Policy 2013
  • Institutional Structure
  • New Initiatives Aligned with the NationalAgenda
  • India & World Collaboration in Science Projects

SPACE

  • Satellite Communication in India
  • INSAT Satellite Applications
  • Remote Sensing Applications
  • Cryogenic Rockets
  • Global Positioning System
  • Role of Space in Development
  • ISRO as Soft Power
  • Issue of Space Race
  • Space Activities Bill, 2017
  • Outer space treaty

IT, TELECOM & ELECTRONICS

  • IT Industry in India
  • Applications of Information Technology
  • Display Technologies
  • Telecommunication
  • Government Initiatives
  • Contemporary Debates

DEFENCE

  • Missile System and their Classification
  • India’s Missile System
  • India’s Ballistic Missile Defence System
  • UAVs in India
  • Stealth Technology ,Chemical Weapons , Biological Weapons

NANO-SCIENCE & NANO-TECHNOLOGY

  • Nanoscience Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials
  • Applications of Nanotechnology
  • Health & Environmental Impacts of Nanotechnology
  • Social & Ethical Impacts
  • Nano-Science& Nanotechnology in India

ROBOTICS

  • Robotics & Artificial Intelligence
  • Applications of Robotics
  • Robotics and Issues of Unemployment

NUCLEAR ENERGY

  • Nuclear-Power Policy of India
  • Non-energy Applications of Nuclear Energy
  • Impact of Radiation, Issue of RadioactiveWaste
  • Institutions involved in Nuclear Energy Development
  • Nuclear & Radiological Disasters

BIOTECHNOLOGY

  • Application of Biotechnology
  • Biotechnology Projects
  • Issue of Bio-Piracy
  • Bioinformatics
  • Biotechnology and IPR Issue
  • Ethical Dimension In Biotechnology

RENEWABLE ENERGY

  • Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)
  • Concept of Green Building
  • Tidal , Wave , Geothermal Energy , Fuel Cells

ACHIEVEMENTS OF INDIANS IN SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

  • Scientists of Ancient India
  • Science and Scientists of Medieval India
  • Scientists of Modern India
  • Policies& Reports related to Science
    • Technology Vision Document 2035
    • National Biotechnology Development Strategy 2015-2020
    • National Intellectual Property Rights Policy
    • Policy on Synthetic Biology
    • Law Commission Report on Human DNA Profiling

Contemporary Issue

SPACE

  • OUTER SPACE TREATY
  • NEUTRINO OBSERVATORY
  • SOLAR MISSION- ADITYA
  • Chandrayaan-2 Mission
  • GRAVITATIONAL WAVES
  • IMPORTANCE OF NAVIGATION SYSTEM
  • Reusable Launch Vehicle
  • About SN Bose
  • Stephen Hawking
  • Space Activities Bill, 2017
  • ISRO AS SOFT POWER
  • ISRO’S ROLE IN SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
  • Space Debris
  • GAGANYAAN
  • 20 years of International Space Station

BIOTECHNOLOGY & HEALTH

  • Tuberculosis
  • Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV
  • Nipah Virus Infection
  • Generic Drugs in India
  • Stent Implants
  • INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS: ISSUES & CONCERNS
  • Misuse of Secondary Patent Methodology
  • Digital Biopiracy
  • Clinical Applications of whole Genome Sequencing
  • Three-Parent Babies Permitted in UK
  • Mass Embryo Transfer
  • Issues Related to Gm Food
  • Importance of Genetic Testing
  • Health Geo-Mapping Project
  • Digital Health Technology Eco-System
  • Ethical Dimension In Biotechnology
  • Law Commission Report on Human DNA Profiling
  • Law against Genetic Discrimination
  • Genome Editing: What, Why and Way Forward

DEFENCE

  • India’s Missile System
  • Brahmos and its Significance
  • India’s Ballistic Missile Defence System
  • Indian Submarines and Naval Ships
  • Light Combat Aircraft
  • UAVs in India
  • Chemical Weapons
  • Biological Weapons

POLICIES RELATED TO SCIENCE

  • Sti Policy 2013 of India: Analysis
  • The Paradox of Innovation
  • Analysis of INSPIRE Scheme
  • National Biotechnology Development Strategy 2015- 2020
  • Organ Donation Rules in India
  • Policy on Synthetic Biology
  • The Dna Technology (Use and Application) Regulation Bill, 2018
  • Maharashtra’s Public Cloud Policy
  • National Policy on Electronics 2019
  • Roadmap for Drones
  • National Wind-Solar Hybrid Policy
  • Draft Rules for E-Pharmacies
  • National Digital Communications Policy
  • Net Neutrality

IT & TELECOM

  • Internet Of Things
  • Big Data Initiative
  • Supercomputer and its Applications
  • Li-Fi Technology and its Application
  • Use of it in Financial Inclusion
  • Credit/Debit Card Crimes
  • Bharatnet Project
  • Wanna Cry Malware
  • Concept of Cyber-Physical Systems
  • Esign Electronic Signature Service: Significance & Applications
  • Digital India: Achievements
  • Adoption of Blockchain Technology to Stop Bank Frauds
  • Artificial Intelligence and Society
  • Two Authentication Procedure
  • Facial Authentication Working
  • Issue of Internet Governance
  • Quantum computing
  • National supercomputing mission
  • Data Protection-B N srikrishna committee
  • Data Localisation and Related Issues
  • National Digital Literacy Mission and Digital NE vision
  • National Mission on Interdisciplinary Cyber-Physical Systems (NM-ICPS)
  • Bullet Train

INITIATIVES IN THE FIELD OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

  • Technology and Food Security
  • BOOSTING Horticulture through Remote Sensing
  • Hyperloop Transportation Technology
  • Cloud Seeding Experiment In Maharashtra
  • Nano-Technology Medicines
  • Hydrogen Bomb
  • Ear Tagging In Cattle
  • e-Cigarette
  • Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant
  • Geo-Tagging The Assets In Mgnrega
  • Robot Tax and its Implications
  • India & World Collaboration in Science Projects

INITIATIVES IN THE FIELD OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

  • Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV
  • Nipah Virus Infection
  • Avian Influenza or Bird Flu
  • Bovine TB
  • Encephalitis
  • Kyasanoor Forest Disease (Monkey Fever)
  • Hospital Acquired Infection
  • Rotavirus
  • Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Virus
  • Swine Flu
  • Chikanguniya
  • Tuberculosis

Environment

UPSC SYLLABUS

  • Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.
  • Disaster and disaster management.

ENVIRONMENT AND ECOLOGY: BASIC UNDERSTANDING

  • Introduction
  • Categories of Environment
  • Features of Environment
  • Components of Environment
  • Ecology

ECOSYSTEM AND ITS DYNAMICS

  • Ecosystem Definitions
  • Properties of Ecosystem
  • Components of Ecosystem
    • Abiotic Factors
    • Biotic Factors
  • Ecosystem Dynamics

BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES

  • Gaseous Cycle
    • Carbon Cycle
  • Human Impact on the Carbon Cycle
  • Effects of High Concentration of Greenhouse Gases
    • Hydrological Cycle
    • Nitrogen Cycle
    • Human Impact on the Nitrogen Cycle
    • Oxygen Cycle
  • Sedimentary Cycle
    • Sulphur Cycle
  • Human Impact on the Sulphur Cycle
    • Phosphorus Cycle

TYPES OF ECOSYSTEMS

  • Terrestrial Ecosystem
  • Aquatic Ecosystem
  • Changes in Ecosystem
  • Ecosystem Conservation
  • Ecology vs. Economy

POPULATION ECOLOGY

  • Population Characteristics
  • Population Growth Models
  • Species
  • Carrying Capacity of Earth           

BIOSPHERE

  • Extent of the Biosphere
  • Working of the Biosphere
  • Importance of the Biosphere
  • Alpha, Beta, Gamma Diversity
  • Biomes
  • Global Biomes
    • Major Biomes of the World
    • WWF Classification of Biomes
    • Terrestrial Biomes
    • Aquatic Biomes
  • Indian Biomes

BIODIVERSITY

  • Types of Biodiversity
  • Value of the Biodiversity
  • Threats to Biodiversity
    • Causes of Biodiversity losses (‘The Evil Quartet’)
    • Invasive species
    • Effects of Loss of Bio-Diversity
  • Extinction of Species
  • Types – Natural, Mass, Anthropogenic
  • Causes of Extinction
  • Consequences of Extinction of Species

BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION

  • Conservation Strategies
  • Conservation Tools
  • IUCN
  • IUCN Red List
  • Ecologically Sensitive Area (ESAs)
  • In-situ methods of conservation of biodiversity
    • Advantages of In-situ Conservation
    • Disadvantages of In-situ conservation
  • Ex-situ Methods of Conservation of Biodiversity

POLLUTION & DEGRADATION

  • Land Degradation
    • Causes and Impact of Land Degradation
    • Desertification
    • Sustainable Land Management
    • Soil Erosion
    • Problems due to Excessive Irrigation
    • Soil Conservation
  • Air Pollution
    • Causes of Air Pollution
    • Harmful Effects of Common Air Pollutants
    • Control of Air Pollution
  • Marine Pollution
    • Effects of Marine Pollution
    • Coastal Regulation Zone Notification, 2011
  • Mining & Pollution
    • Effects of Mining on Environment
    • Concept of Sustainable Mining
    • Acts to regulate the adverse effects of Mining Activities
  • Other Pollution
    • Effects of Noise Pollution on Human Health
    • Harmful Effects from Biological Contaminants
    • Harmful Effects of Radioactive Pollution
    • Nuclear Accidents
  • Water Degradation
    • Measurement of Water Pollution
    • Harmful Effects of Water Pollution
    • Delhi Pollution

WASTE MANAGEMENT

  • Solid Waste Management
    • Salient features of SWM Rules, 2016
  • e-waste Management
    • Pollutants and their Health Impacts
    • Importance of the E-Waste Management
    • E-waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 2016
  • Biomedical Waste
    • Hazards Associated with Waste Management
    • Bio-Medical Waste Management Rules, 2016
  • Hazardous Waste
    • Hazardous Waste Treatment
    • Hazardous and Other Wastes (Management & Transboundary Movement) Rules, 2016

CLIMATE CHANGE

  • Factors Affecting Climate Change
  • Impact of climate change & its mitigation
  • Climate Change Management
    • Conventions
    • International Organisations

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT SUSTAINABLE PRACTICES

  • Impact of Agriculture on Environment
    • Sustainable Agriculture
  • Sustainable Agriculture
    • Hi-tech Farming Methods
    • Rain Water Harvesting
    • Green Buildings and their Rating System in India
  • Eco-tourism – Advantages & Disadvantages of Eco-tourism

Contemporary Issue

WILDLIFE

  • Man-Animal Conflicts in India
  • Poaching activities in India
  • Development leads to tiger extinction
  • Elephant Conservation
  • International treaties for wildlife conservation Use of drones for wildlife conservation
  • Urban Land Acting as Death Traps for Birds
  • Eco-Bridges and Biodiversity Management
  • Suderbans at risk due to Climate Change
  • Critical Wildlife Habitats
  • Declining Population of Pollinators
  • International treaties for Wildlife Conservation

COMBATING POLLUTION

  • Indoor Air Pollution and its impact
  • Impact of Particulate Matter
  • Smog and its impact
  • Aerosol shrinking India’s Monsoon
  • Stubble Burning
  • Mobile radiation Impact on Health
  • Heavy water Pollution
  • Plastic Pollution
  • Light Immersion Pollution                    
  • Idol Pollution
  • Oil Spill
  • Garbage Dumping and its Environment
  • E-waste Management Rules 2016
  • Groundwater contamination (Arsenic, Uranium)
  • Bharat Stage Norm
  • What is Polluters Pay Model?
  • LANCET Study REPORT: Most Pollution linked deaths occur in India
  • Beach (Coastal) Pollution
  • Nitrogen Pollution
  • Hazardous Waste (Management & Transboundary Movement) Rules, 2016

CLIMATE CHANGE

  • Conference of Parties (COP-24) at Katowice
  • Marrakech Climate Change Conference
  • Paris Agreement
  • US moved out of Paris agreement
  • Kigali Agreement
  • Kyoto Protocol (2nd Commitment)
  • IPCC Report 2018
  • International Solar Alliance
  • Concept of Green Bond
  • Green Climate Fund
  • Carbon Tax Feasibility in India
  • Concept of Green Building
  • Concept of Carbon Credit
  • Climate Change and Cities
  • Climate change and its impact on Health
  • Climate Change and Agriculture
  • Climate Change and sea level Rise
  • Ocean Warming
  • Melting of Gangotri Glacier
  • Programmes and Policies Initiated for Mitigating Climate Change
  • International Collaboration for Mitigating Climate Change
  • Ethical issue involved in climate change
  • Third Pole and Climate Change
  • UNCCD 2018-2030 Strategic Framework
  • Regulatory Indicators for Sustainable Energy (Rise) 2018 – Wb
  • Accounting Methods of Climate Fund Questioned
  • Tackling Climate Change from a Security Perspective
  • Effects of Global Warming on El Nino in The 21st Century
  • India to Expand Polar Research to Arctic
  • Bengal Tigers may not Survive Climate Change
  • Scientists Mull Stratospheric Barrier to Curb Global Warming

RENEWABLE ENERGY

  • Biogas
  • National Solar Mission
  • Status of Hydro Power energy in India
  • Alternative fuels in India
  • Draft Energy Policy
  • National Energy Storage Mission
  • Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency
  • National Wind-solar Hybrid Policy
  • Photo-voltaic industry and CPSU scheme

INITIATIVES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION

  • Compensatory Afforestation Fund Act
  • Draft National Wildlife Action Plan
  • Wetland Management Rules, 2017
  • Initiatives to enhance green cover
  • Policy on Promotion of City Compost
  • Ancient Bawadis and Water Management
  • Living status to Rivers
  • Ganga River Pollution
  • Environment Impact Assessment
  • Environmental Compliance and Enforcement in India
  • Public Participation for Environmental conservation
  • Western Ghats biodiversity conservation
  • The 25 Year Environment Plan
  • India’s National Redd+ Strategy
  • EnviStats-India 2019
  • Indian Forest Act amendment
  • Sustainable India Finance Facility (SIFF)
  • Sustainable Development in Indian Himalayan Region
  • Global Carbon Project (GCP)
  • Naturalized species
  • Resource Efficiency Cell
  • India Cooling Action Plan (ICAP), Global Cooling Coalition
  • Island protection zone (IPZ) 2019 for Andaman and Nicobar
  • Plan to save Himalayan springs
  • Environmental Institutions
  • Pollution Control Board: Analysis
  • National Green Tribunal: Analysis
  • Forest Survey of India and India State of Forest Report, 2017
  • Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee
  • Traditional Knowledge Digital Library

MISCELLANEOUS ISSUES

  • Impacts of Dam and fishing
  • Issue of Land Degradation
  • Sand Mining
  • Algal bloom Issue
  • Melting of Antarctica and its impact
  • River linking project and its impact
  • Bottom Trawling to Deep Sea fishing
  • Mass Coral Bleaching – Threats to coral reefs
  • Forest Fires

Ethics

UPSC SYLLABUS

  • Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships
  • Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values
  • Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion
  • Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world

ETHICS: BASIC INTRODUCTION

  • Dimensions and Essence of Ethics
  • Approaches of Ethical Study: Indian Perspective and Western Perspective
  • Basic concepts: morality and value    
  • Ethics in public life
  • Ethics in Economic Life
  • Freedom and Discipline
  • Duties and Rights
  • Virtue Ethics
  • Consequences of Ethics in Human Actions
  • Values and Ethics in Government: Legislature, Executive and judiciary
  • Contribution of Family in Value Education
  • Contribution of Society in Inculcating Values
  • Role of Educational Institutions in 
    Inculcating Values

HUMAN VALUES

  • Human Values& Socialization
  • Individual Personality and Values
  • Values and Skill
  • Fundamental and Instrumental Values
  • Democratic values
  • Role of Ethical values in governance and society
  • Significance of values in civil services
  • Aesthetic values
  • Values in work life and professional ethics

APTITUDE AND FOUNDATIONAL VALUES OF CIVIL SERVICES

  • Essential Aptitude for civil servants
  • Foundational Values of Civil Services
  • Civil Services Accountability
  • Neutrality, Anonymity, Integrity , Humility , Adaptability , Magnanimity , Perseverance
  • Impartiality and Non-Partisanship
  • Tolerance and compassion for the Weaker section
  • Contribution to society by Civil Services

INDIA & WORLD THINKERS

  • Indian Thinkers
    • Mahatama Gandhi
    • S Radhakrishnan
    • Rabindranath Tagore
    • Swami DayanandSaraswati
    • MahadevaGovindaRanade
    • Sri Aurobindo
    • Swami Vivekananda
    • Sardar Patel
    • Buddha
    • Bhim Rao Ambedkar
    • Raja Ram Mohan Roy
    • ChhatrapatiShahuMaharaj
    • Mother Teresa
    • Amitabha Chowdhury
    • Aruna Roy
    • T N Seshan
    • E Sreedharan
  • Administrative Thinkers
    • Max Weber
    • Elton Mayo
    • Peter Drucker
    • Chestar Barnard
    • Mary Parker Follet
  • World Thinkers
    • Plato
    • Aristotle
    • Socrates
    • Jeremy Bentham
    • S. Mill
    • Thomas Hobbes
    • John Locke
    • Jean Jacques Rousseau
    • John Rawls
    • Immanuel Kant
    • Carol Gilligan
    • Jean Paul Sartre
    • Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
    • Confucius
    • Rene Descartes
    • Karl Marx
    • Adam Smith
    • Thomas Aquinas
    • David Hume
    • Democritus
    • Galileo
    • Friedrich Nietzsche
    • Montesquieu
    • Voltaire
    • Thomas Jefferson
  • Indian & World Leaders
    • Benjamin Franklin
    • Martin Luther King
    • Dalai Lama
    • Nelson Mandela
    • Mahatma Gandhi
    • Siddhartha Gautama
    • Aung San Suu Kyi
    • Swami Vivekananda
    • Albert Einstein
    • Abraham Lincoln
    • Mother Teresa
    • J L Nehru
    • Lee Kuan Yew
    • Henry Ford
    • Abdul Kalam
    • Muhammad Yunus
    • Wangari Maathai
    • Kofi Annan
    • Lech Walesa
    • Desmond Tutu
    • Isaac Newton
    • Elie Wiesel
    • King Ashoka
    • Sun Yat Sen

EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE

  • Concept of Emotional Intelligence Models of emotional intelligence
  • Peter Salovey and John Mayer
  • Reuven Bar-on Model
  • Goleman’s model
  • Utilities of Emotional Intelligence
  • Main Components of emotional intelligence
  • Importance of emotional intelligence in bureaucracy
  • Relevance of Emotional intelligence in Civil Services
  • Critiques of emotional intelligence

ATTITUDE

  • Components of Attitude: Affective, Cognitive, Behavioral component
  • Functions of Attitude: Adjustive, Ego-Defensive, Value-Expressive , Knowledge Function
  • Attitude Formation Model
  • Impact of Beliefs and Values on Attitude
  • Group Influences
  • Social Influence
  • Persuasion Tactics and Tools of Persuasion
  • Moral Attitude formation
  • Political Attitude formation

ETHICS & GOVERNANCE

  • Values & Ethics in Public Administration
  • Ethical Concerns in Public Institution
  • Ethical Concerns in Private Institutions
  • Ethical Dilemmas in Public and Private Institutions
  • Laws, Rules and Regulations as Source of Ethical Guidance
  • Accountability and Ethical Governance Strengthening of Ethical and Moral Values in Governance
  • Moral Judgments in International Relations Ethical Relation in Funding
  • International Relations and concept of Moral Responsibility
  • Ethics in working of international organizations
  • What is Corporate Governance?
  • Models of Corporate Social Responsibility
  • Steps taken by World Bank for Good Corporate Governance
  • Norms for Corporate Government in India
  • Concept of business ethics         

PROBITY IN GOVERNANCE

  • Concept of Public Service
  • Philosophical basis of Governance and Probity
  • Information Sharing, Transparency and  Right to Information
  • Flaws in RTI and recommendations for improvement
  • Importance of vigilant citizens
  • Information sharing and participation Importance of Code of ethics
  • Code of Ethics in Professions
  • Code of Conduct for Ministers; for Legislators; for Civil Servants; for Regulators and for the Judiciary
  • Components of a Citizen Charter
  • Steps in formulation of a Citizen’s Charter … Concept of Work Culture
  • The Indian Approach to Work
  • Methods of improving Work Culture
  • Quality of Service Delivery
  • Utilisation of Public Funds
  • Problems in Fund Release and Utilization Parliamentary Control on Expenditure
  • Corruption in India: extent, dimension, and response
  • Corruption as a social evil
  • Probity in public life Corrupt practice among civil servants and official misconduct
  • Exposing corruption: Civil Society initiatives and role of Whistleblower Act
  • Tackling corruption: Role of government and institutions of governance
  • Controlling corruption: Various approaches and efficacy

Applied Ethics

EUTHANASIA ISSUE

  • Social and Ethical perspective
  • Different arguments related to Euthanasia

SURROGACY

  • Case studies and Ethical Issues
  • Concept of ethical surrogacy

ETHICS & SPORTS

  • Importance of sports
  • Ethical Issue: Need for sportsmanship, Doping
  • Ethical Issue: Discrimination and Sexual Harassment
  • Ethical Issue: Sports as a Business
  • Measures needed

MEDIA ETHICS

  • Role of Media and Ethical Issues faced by Reporters
  • Trial by Media and Media Prejudice
  • Ethical Dilemma faced by Photo Journalists
  • Digital Media Ethics
  • Paid News

BUSINESS ETHICS

  • Principles of Business Ethics
  • Dimensions related to Business Ethics in Organisation
  • Business Ethics and Corporate Governance
  • Journey from Philanthropy to Corporate Social Responsibility
  • Issues related to Corporate Social Responsibility
  • Issues in implementation of Business Ethics

ETHICS RELATED TO ECONOMIC SANCTIONS

  • Why Economic Sanctions placed?
  • Ethics in Economic Sanctions

REFUGEES & ETHICS

  • Why Migration occurs?
  • Case study of Syria
  • Dilemmas related to Refugee crisis
  • Rohingya Crisis

ETHICAL DILEMMAS OF GLOBALIZATION

  • What is Globalization
  • Free trade in Globalized world
  • Issues with Newly Developed Trade Patterns
  • Criticism against global regime

ETHICS OF WAR

  • Ethics and War theories
  • Evils of war

ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS

  • Linkage between Ethics and Environment
  • Theories related to Environmental ethics
  • Role of individual and society at large

ETHICAL ISSUES IN BIOTECHNOLOGY

  • Issues related to Stem Cell
  • Issues related to cloning
  • Issues related to designer babies
  • Genetic engineering

ANIMAL ETHICS

  • Issues of conducting research on animals
  • Issue of keeping animals as pets
  • Issue of Cruelty against animals

FOOD ADULTERATION AND ETHICS

  • Ethical dimension
  • Ethical issue related to food additive

ABORTION: ETHICAL OR UNETHICAL

  • Law of abortion in India
  • Recent Supreme Court verdict
  • Ethical Issue: Health of Women vs. foetus
  • Justification for abortion – Argument against abortion
  • Abortion and women rights
  • Abortion and father rights
  • Honour Killing
  • Role of khap Panchayats

MARITAL RAPE

  • Why Marital Rape should not be criminalized?
  • Why Marital Rape should be criminalized?
  • What are the hurdles?

CHILD LABOUR

  • Rights of children
  • Child labour and company
  • Role of consumer

ETHICAL ISSUES INVOLVED IN JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM

  • Negative implications
  • Ethics and Old Age
  • Ethical issues
  • Issues faced
  • Importance of autonomy

Internal Security Challenges in India

UPSC SYLLABUS

  • Science and Technology- developments and Linkages between development and spread of extremism.
  • Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.
  • Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention.
  • Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with terrorism. Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate.

INTERNAL SECURITY CHALLENGES

  • Social Diversity as Issues of Security Threat
  • Challenges from within India
  • Neighbors as Issue of Security Threat
    • Pakistan
    • China
    • Myanmar
    • Bangladesh
    • Bhutan
    • Nepal
    • Sri Lanka
  • Non-State Actors as Issue of Security Threat
  • Global Indices and Measurement of 
    Vulnerability of a State towards such Non-State Actors
  • Law and Order vs. Internal Security

TERRORISM THREAT TO INDIA

  • Changing face of Terrorism
  • Terror Threats Faced by India
  • Broader Framework to Deal with Terrorism

ORGANIZED CRIME

  • Types of Organized Crime
  • Problems in controlling organized crimes
  • Combating organized crimes
  • Linkage of Terrorism and Organized Crime in India

LINKAGE BETWEEN DEVELOPMENT AND SPREAD OF EXTREMISM

  • What is Naxalism
  • What is the History of Naxal Movement
  • Why naxalism is a biggest threat to internal security?

INSURGENCY IN NORTH-EAST

  • Introduction
  • Issues & Conflicts
  • Assam Insurgency

SECURITY CHALLENGES IN BORDER AREAS

  • Challenges to Border Management
  • Issues Faced in Border Management
  • Community Participation for Border Management

BASICS OF CYBER SECURITY

  • Basic Definition
  • Types of Cyber Crimes
  • Impact and Steps needed
  • Recent Incident: Ransomware
  • National Cyber Security Policy of India 2013

CYBER WARFARE

  • Factors Contributing/Aggravating Rise of Cyber Attack
  • Recent Initiatives for Tackling Cyber Warfare
  • Way Ahead
  • Chinas role in cyber warfare
  • Different spywares

SOCIAL MEDIA AND INTERNAL SECURITY THREAT

  • Regulation of Social Media in India for Internal Security
  • Challenges in Monitoring Social Media

MONEY LAUNDERING

  • Meaning of Money Laundering
  • Harmful Effects of Money Laundering
  • Steps taken by the Government

BLACK MONEY IN INDIA

  • Parallel Economy in India
  • Measures taken to curb Black Money?
  • Demonetization for curbing black money
  • Impact of demonetization on black money
  • Criticisms

SECURITY FORCES AND THEIR MANDATE

  • Police Reforms in India
  • Organizational Structure
  • Duties and Responsibilities of the Police
  • Centre’s Role in Policing
  • Traditional Security Challenges
  • Non-Traditional Security Challenges (NTS)
  • Recommendations for Police Reforms
  • Police we Want in 21stCentury            
  • Prison Reforms

VARIOUS SECURITY FORCES AND THEIR MANDATE

  • Assam Rifles
  • Border Security Force (BSF)
  • Indo-Tibetan Border Police
  • Central Industrial Security Force (CISF)
  • Central Reserve Police Force
  • National Security Guard
  • Issues with Paramilitary Forces

ROLE OF ARMY IN INTERNAL SECURITY

  • Strategic Perspective: Has role of Military become more relevant today?
  • National Context
  • The Indian Army’s Response
    • Structural Adaptation
    • Doctrinal Development
    • Leadership Adaptation
    • Long-term Perspective

GOVERNANCE ISSUES RELATED TO INTERNAL SECURITY

  • Threats, Challenges and Vulnerabilities in 21stCentury
  • Introduction
  • China: The Long-term Challenge
  • Managing the China-Pakistan Collusion
  • Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Threat
  • Aerospace Threats
  • Maritime Security
  • Natural Resources
  • Conflict over Water
  • Energy Security
  • Global Warming
  • Indian Diaspora
  • Economic Warfare
  • Role of foreign elements in disturbing internal security

IMPACT OF GOVERNANCE AND JUSTICE DELIVERY SYSTEM ON INTERNAL SECURITY

  • Importance of Good Governance in Internal Security
  • Reforms Needed
  • Improving E-governance platforms

NATIONAL SECURITY MECHANISM

  • Improving Policing and Intelligence
  • Resolving Centre-State Issues in Managing Internal Security

ISSUES IN INTELLIGENCE SERVICES

  • Response Mechanism in India
  • What are the Major INTELLIGENCE Challenges?
  • Steps to tackle the flaws
  • What are the probable measures to improve Intelligence Services in India?
  • How to Create these Capabilities?
  • Recent terrorist attacks an role of intelligence in that context

STRATEGY FOR COASTAL AND OFFSHORE SECURITY

  • Different Facets of Maritime Security
  • Different Reporting Mechanism for Handling Security
  • Importance of Coastal Community Participation

MAKE IN INDIA IN DEFENCE

  • Present Scenario
  • Make in India in Defense
  • Government Policy
  • Strategy for Indigenization
    • Skill Development
  • Technology acquisition

Contemporary Issues

MILITARY RELATED POLICIES IN INDIA

  • Joint Doctrine Indian Armed Forces – 2017
  • Doctrine of Hot Pursuit
  • Military Cold Start Doctrine
  • India’s Military Readiness
  • Women into Military Police
  • Anti-Hijacking Act, 2016: An Analysis

DEFENSE PROCUREMENT

  • Working Analysis of Defence PSU
  • DRDO (Defence Research & Development Organization)
  • Make in India in Defense
  • CAG Report on Ammunitions Management System
  • Strategic Partnership Policy to Boost Defense Manufacturing
  • China increasing Defence Budget and India’s decreasing (implications)

ISSUES RELATED TO SECURITY FORCES

  • Central Armed Police Forces
  • I Indian Police Structure
  • Police Modernization Scheme
  • Police Reform with Respect to Cyber Security
  • Police Surveillance in Age of Big Data
  • Andaman Sea Region: India Eyes for Military Expansion
  • Role of Indian Navy in Indian Ocean
  • Draft Amendments to National Investigation Agency Act-2008 Released
  • One Rank One Pension
  • Non Lethal Weapons to Control Crowd and Laws Related to it
  • V.S.N. Prasad Report on alternatives to Pellet Guns

ISSUES RELATED TO INTERNAL SECURITY

  • Strategy for Managing Internal Security
  • Counter-terrorism Infrastructure in India
  • ISIS Challenge in India
  • Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism
  • Naxalism
  • Peace Accord
  • Organized Crime
  • Media and Internal Security Threat
  • Does Social Media Threaten Democracy?

International Relations

UPSC SYLLABUS

  • India and its neighborhood- relations.
  • Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests
  • Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests,
  • Indian diaspora
  • Important International institutions, agencies and fora, their structure, mandate

INDIA’S FOREIGN POLICY

  • Evolution and Challenges
    • Evolution of India’s foreign policy (Including NAM, Look East and Gujral Doctrine)
    • Determinants and challenges of India’s Foreign Policy
  • Recent Policies
    • Neighborhood first policy
    • Act east policy
    • Link west policy
    • Indian ocean outreach
    • Soft Power and Hard Power diplomacy
    • Defence and Nuclear Diplomacy
    • Space diplomacy
    • Para diplomacy-A New Way for Indian  Foreign Policy?
    • Middle Power Coalition
    • Significance of PMO in foreign policy making
    • India’s Strategic Connect with the World
    • Rise of Realpolitik in India’s Foreign Policy in recent times
    • Indian Diaspora

INDIA AND ITS NEIGHBOURS

  • India-China
    • Border dispute
    • China’s string of pearls
    • China’s Belt and Road Initiative: Prospects and Pitfalls
      • Maritime Silk Road” linking the Indian and Pacific Oceans
      • Why India is alarmed regarding BRI?
    • India’s trade deficit with China
    • China’s Malacca Dilemma
    • 2+1 Dialogue mechanism proposed by China
    • A rising China: Challenges the US primacy in Asia and role of India
    • Chinese project of diverting Tibetan waters
    • South China Sea: objection of China to   India’s presence
    • China denies CPEC backing as ‘debt trap’ for Pakistan (Debt trap diplomacy of China)
    • The Unintended Consequences of India’s Policy on Citizenship for Tibetan Refugees
    • Indias Concern in Joining RCEP    
    • China’s Economic Slowdown
  • India-Pakistan
  • Indo-Pak Relations : Border Dispute and J&K issue
    • Terrorism emanating from Pakistan
    • Indus waters policy shift
    • Dispute over Gilgit-Baltistan
    • CPEC in PoK
    • Nuclear India-Pak-US
    • Indian stance regarding Baluchistan
  • India Bhutan
    • Bhutan’s significance for Indian Foreign policy
    • India-Bhutan Friendship Treaty
    • Objection of Bhutan to India’s Motor vehicle agreement
    • Bhutan’s rejection of China’s BRI
  • India-Nepal
    • Indo-Nepal Relations : Fluctuating ties
    • Nepal’s tilt towards China
    • Nepal-China Transit Agreement: An Evaluation
    • India’s concern about Nepal’s new Constitution
    • The Issue of Water and Hydropower Cooperation
    • Nepal Bharat Maitri Project
  • India-Myanmar
    • Democracy in Myanmar
    • Scope for cooperation between N-E India & Myanmar
    • Rohingya issue
    • Buddhist Chauvinism
    • Major Projects: Kaladan multi-modal corridor, India-Myanmar- Thailand trilateral highway
  • India-Bangladesh
    • Indo-Bangladesh Relations
    • Water Dispute Teesta water issue & Ganga river dispute
    • Bangladesh demand to stop the construction of the Tipaimukh Hydro- Electric Power Project on the Barak River
    • Differences in approach of India and China towards Bangladesh
    • Illegal Immigration
    • Understanding Bangladesh’s Unexpected Development Success
  • India-Afghanistan
    • Instability in Afghanistan and role of India
    • India’s cooperation in Afghanistan               
    • Moscow Format
  • India-Maldives
    • Geostrategic Importance of Maldives
    • Recent developments in Maldives exemplifying recalibration of ties
    • FTA Between China and Maldives – Warning For India
  • India-Srilanka
    • Sino-Sri Lanka Relationship
    • Fishermen issue
    • Issues on 13thamendment (Tamil & Minority Rights)
    • Human Right violations & OHCHR Resolution on Sri Lanka
  • Indian Ocean Region
    • Indian Ocean region and world affairs
    • India is a “Net Security Provider” of the Indian Ocean
    • Increasing Chinese influence in the Indian Ocean
    • 20 years of formation of IORA
    • Piracy in the Indian Ocean
    • Seychelles’ parliament refusal to ratify an Indian naval base plan on the Assumption Island         
    • Importance of Seychelles to India
  • Indo-Pacific
    • Concept of Indo-Pacific from perspectives different countries
    • East Asia Summit acts as a bridge for Indo-Pacific region
    • India-Pacific Regional Dialogue
  • SAARC/BIMSTEC/BBIN
    • SAARC: Challenges and Prospects
    • Intra-low regional trade
    • BIMSTEC as an alternative to SAARC
    • Nepal withdrew from first ever BIMSTEC’s military drill in India.
    • Progress of BBIN project
  • Global Issues
    • Disarmament
    • Climate Change
    • Terrorism
    • Global Governance
    • Indian Diaspora

INDIA AND EXTENDED NEIGHBOURHOOD

  • India-Indonesia
    • Indonesia’s vision as a “Global Maritime Axis.” and it’s significance for India
  • India-Singapore
    • India-Singapore Bilateral Agreement for naval cooperation
  • Thailand
    • Indo-Thai relations: Challenges & opportunities
  • India-Vietnam
    • India -Vietnam’s strategic cooperation
  • India-ASEAN
    • Importance of ASEAN in establishing peace and stability in region
    • ASEAN-India Relations: Prospects and Challenges in Economic Partnership
    • India’s cooperation with the ASEAN has been less than China and Japan

CENTRAL ASIA

  • Connect Central Asia Policy
    • Importance of central Asia
    • Golden Crescent
    • Connectivity Projects (INSTC, Ashgabat Agreement, TAPI Pipeline)
  • India Mongolia
    • India-Mongolia Bilateral Cooperation
    • Mongolia launched construction of first strategically oil refinery,  constructed by India

WEST ASIA/MIDDLE EAST

  • Importance of West Asia for India
  • Change in West Asian strategic thinking
  • China’s engagement in West Asia and challenges to India
  • Reasons behind India’s active strategic engagements with West Asian countries  without participating in West Asian turmoil
  • Shia-Sunni wedge in West Asian countries
  • Importance of Saudi Arabia, Challenges  in India-Saudi Arabia Relations
  • Plight on Indian migrant workers.
  • Relations between India and United Arab Emirates
  • Middle East to India Deep water Pipeline (MEIDP)
  • India-Iran
    • Consolidating India-Iran Cooperation
    • Connectivity- Importance of Chabahar port
    • Iran nuclear deal: Iran Sanctions & India’s Options
  • India Israel:
    • From ‘in the closet’ into a fast-developing open relationship
    • strategic significance of the Indo-Israeli relationship
    • De-hyphenation of Israel and Palestine

INDIA AND WORLD

  • India-Africa
    • India-Africa Trade relations: Prospects
    • Contribution of Indian Diaspora in various fields in Africa.
    • African co-operation in ensuring security and peace in Indian Ocean region
    • India’s Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Africa’s hydrocarbon sector.
    • Strategic Partnership between India and South Africa
  • India-Europe
    • The first India-Nordic Summit
    • What is GDPR? its implication for India
    • influx of refugees into Europe
    • irritants between India-EU (FTA)
    • A new European Union strategy for India
    • Ukrainian Crisis’ has lead to resurgence of cold war
    • Brief on India-UK relations
    • Brief on India-France relations
  • India and USA
    • Brief of India-US relations
    • Mutually supportive Defence cooperation relationship
    • logjams in implementation of civil nuclear cooperation agreement between India and the USA
    • Bilateral Social Security Agreements
    • The rise of protectionist regime in USA and the challenges for the Indian
    • Importance of New Security strategy (NSS) of USA for India
    • Recent US extraterritorial Sanctions and their potential impacts on India
    • Potential impact of US sanctions towards Russia, Iran and North Korea using CAATSA on US-India relation,
    • USA pulls out of INF treaty-Its implication for India
    • Pivot to the East policy of the USA
    • The Arithmetic of India-U.S. Relations and the Russian Factor
    • The First India-US 2+2 Dialogue: An Assessment
    • Challenges in Implementing JCPOA after the US Withdrawal
    • LEMA-Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement
    • Visa, Free Trade and WTO
  • India-Canada
    • Uranium Deal
  • India-Russia
    • India’s increasing defence deal with USA, Israel
    • Russian arms deal with Pakistan
    • Stagnation between India-Russia Relations
    • Russian proposal of ‘Eurasian Economic Union
  • India-Japan
    • Japan’s funding of major projects in India
    • Nuclear Pact
    • Japan’s Pacifism
    • 13th annual India – Japan summit
  • India-Australia
    • Australia’s “An India Economic Strategy to 2035”, a vision document
    • Nuclear cooperation between India- Australia

INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATON AND GLOBAL ISSUES

  • United Nation and UNSC
    • UNSC Reforms : Importance and Challenges
  • BRICS
    • Advantages of setting up the New Development Bank
    • Prospects and Challenges of BRICS
  • Commonwealth
    • Shared history of Commonwealth
    • Relevance in current time and Areas of Cooperation
  • Shanghai Cooperation Organization
    • Benefits and challenges of India’s entry in SCO
  • IMF – The International Monetary Fund:
    • issues concerning the reforms in Bretton Wood twins and needs structural reforms to reflect post globalization  realities of the world
  • NATO – The North Atlantic Treaty Organization:
    • Relevance of NATO in post USSR era
  • TPP – The Trans-Pacific Partnership:
    • Will RCEP prove to be a competitor of TPP in the Asia-Pacific region
  • WTO – The World Trade Organization:
    • Doha round and Singapore Agenda: Challenges in implementation         
    • USA-India dispute
    • Need to revamp WTO
  • Arctic Council:
    • Arctic is attracting global interest
  • IAEA
    • India’s nuclear facilities under IAEA safeguards
  • UK Referendum – Brexit
    • Consequences of Brexit for United Kingdom and European Union,
    • Effect of Brexit on China and India
  • Refugee problem:
    • Does the world need a new UN convention on refugees
    • United Nations member states (except the U.S. and Hungary) agreed on a Global Compact for Migration to better manage international migration
  • Terrorism:
    • Reasons of rise of far right wing politics in many developed and developing countries
    • The Comprehensive Convention on  International Terrorism (CCIT)
    • UNSC’s 1267 Al Qaeda Sanctions 
      Committee on Jaish-e-Mohammad Chief Masood Azhar        
    • Security Council Resolution 2322 to   enhance the efficacy of international  legal and judicial systems
    • Lone-wolf attacks.
  • Yemen Crisis-
    • Yemen Crisis: Reasons and impacts
  • South China Sea
    • Contention over South China Sea and South China Sea Ruling
    • Senkaku and Diaoyu conflict between China and Japan
    • Role of India in the wake of increasing South China Sea dispute
  • Other
    • World coming towards a new multi-polar order with USA as a waning superpower and China-Russia axis as an emerging challenger
    • India and the International Solar Alliance
    • Venezuela-Columbia Border Issue
    • AIIB & The Changing World Order
    • Multilateral export control regimes : Significance and challenges of India’s Entry
    • US-Venezuela Stand-off : Impact on Global Oil Prices
    • Renaissance and Reticence in India’s            North-South Connectivity Platform
    • Strategic Petroleum Reserves: Stocking  Oil for Rainy Days
    • QUAD: Strategic and economic benefits
    • India has been accorded associate member status by IEA,: Its importance for India
    • Why RIC is as important to India as JAI and BRICS?
    • Rising Protectionism and Currency Wars
  • Indian Diaspora
    • Role played by Indian Diaspora
    • Issue of safety of Indians abroad
    • Schemes for Welfare of Overseas Indian
    • Indian Diaspora in Gulf
  • Nitaqat law and Present Status

Contemporary Issues

FOREIGN POLICY OF INDIA

  • Foreign Policy of India
  • Virtue of Soft Power
  • Middle Power Coalition
  • Terrorism
  • Appendix: Global Terrorism Index 2017
  • Diplomacy of Buddhism
  • Indian Navy at the Front Seat of Indian Foreign Policy 
  • Indian Diaspora
  • Indian Diaspora in Gulf

NEIGHBOURS

  • India’s Neighbourhood Policy
  • China
  • South China Sea ruling
  • Water Diplomacy through Dams
  • Chumbhi Valley and Doklam Plateau
  • Why China is Winning over India’s Neighbors?  
  • India, China ink first-ever Internal Security Cooperation Agreement
  • Nepal
  • Rebooting India Nepal Ties
  • Nepal Withdrew From First Ever BIMSTEC’s military drill in India
  • Pakistan
  • Shift Indus Waters Treaty Policy
  • Afghanistan
  • Heart of Asia Conference
  • Sri Lanka
  • Bangladesh
  • Myanmar
  • Maldives
  • FTA between China and Maldives – Warning for India
  • Bhutan

BILATERAL RELATIONS

  • Act East Policy
  • Australia
  • Indonesia
  • Singapore
  • South Korea
  • Thailand
  • Vietnam
  • Philippines
  • Iran
  • Saudi Arabia
  • U AE
  • Slowdown in West Asia
  • Return of Retrenched Workers
  • Race for Resources in Central Asia
  • Kazakshtan
  • Mongolia
  • Island Nations
  • Africa
  • Nigeria

GLOBAL POWERS

  • USA
  • A new European Union strategy for India
  • Germany
  • Japan
  • Appendix: Asia-Africa Growth Corridor (AAGC)
  • France
  • Russia
  • Decline in Indo-Russia Relations
  • Why RIC is as important to India as JAI and BRICS?                
  • UK
  • Brazil
  • Israel
  • India’s De-hyphenated Policy

INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS & AGREEMENT

  • IMF
  • World Bank
  • WTO
  • G-20
  • ASEAN
  • BIMSTEC
  • Indian Ocean region and world affairs
  • BRICS
  • Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank
  • Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP)
  • Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership and India
  • Multilateral Negotiations for a Nuclear Weapons Ban 
  • Wassenaar Arrangement and India
  • India Admitted to Australia Group
  • IAEA
  • Nuclear Security Summit
  • Non-Alignment Movement (NAM)
  • UNSC Reform

GLOBAL ISSUES

  • International Terrorism
  • Migration Crisis in Europe
  • Rising Protectionism and Currency Wars
  • Greek Debt Crisis
  • Iran Nuclear Deal
  • US Sanctions on Iran
  • Global Initiative Launched to Fight Fake News
  • What does US Recognition of Jerusalem Means?
  • YEMEN WAR and Implications
  • Why Saudi Arabia is Moving Towards Reforms?
  • Rohingya Repatriation Deal Signed